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Emperor Penguin's Body System

research on the metabolic process, each system functions and how they interact. Concentrate in the following systems: Nervous, Circulatory, Digestive, Respiratory, Excretory, Reproductive, Endocrine and muscular system
by

David Guizarry

on 4 May 2011

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Transcript of Emperor Penguin's Body System

Emperor Penguin's Body Systems Nervous System Circulatory System Digestive System Respiratory System Excretory System Reproductive System Endocrine System Muscular System Penguins have lungs, too. But these lungs aren't like ours at all. You're probably familiar with our system of lungs: we have two Lungs and air is conducted in when we inhale and out when we exhale. This means that mammal lungs have blind ends. Air goes in, stops, and comes right back out. In penguin lungs, air never stops. Early in development, the respiratory system begins as a diverticulum, that is, an out pocketing, of the digestive tract. Shortly after budding outward, the digestive tract and the respiratory system tract separate. The respiratory diverticulum forms two lung buds. At this point, human and penguin lung development are quite similar. Shortly after this point, penguins develop additional organs called air sacs.

Penguins have to breathe air just like mammals; therefore, they have to come above water while swimming. Breathing begins with inspiration. Air enters the nares, the same thing as nostrils (Breathing hole in the nose), and mouth (oral cavity). A short distance away from this site, air travels to the lungs through the trachea (tube in insects and related air-breathing invertebrate animals through which air is drawn into the body by the pumping action of the abdominal muscles). Penguins tracheas are like human tracheas. The penguin trachea is composed of mucous tissues, muscles, and cartilage, just like the human tracheas. The very top of the image is the lumen or tunnel portion of the trachea. Below it is the Respiratory epithelium. Which is a thin layer of tightly packed cells lining internal cavities, ducts, and organs of the penguin and covering exposed bodily surfaces, especially in wounds that are healing. Its amazing how it is a one cell thick. Beneath that is some tissues and a thin layer of muscle. In the image are two layers, or rings, of cartilage, CARTILGE IS TOUGH TISSUE THAT SOMETIMES FORMS BONES. As air moves further down the trachea, it goes in two directions into the two lungs of the penguin. With this flow of a air is large volume of oxygen. In order to get oxygen into the blood, oxygen has to come within small distance of the penguin blood cells. This is when oxygenated air enters the parabronchus. The parabronchus is a specialized lung tissue found in penguins that isn’t found in mammals. That is because air continually cycles through penguin lungs and air sacs. Oxygen passes along the cell surface of the parabronchus and diffuses into the tissues and then into the blood. At this point, carbon dioxide leaves the blood and enters the airspace of the parabronchus. This blood gets oxygenated in penguins. If you look at the last picture, you can see a basic model of how air flows through the penguin respiratory system. It’s similar, yet different, to our very own respiratory system. Before I start let's go over their Courtship. Courtship varies among the species. It generally begins with both visual and auditory displays. In many species, males display first to establish a nest site and then to attract a mate.

Penguins head for special nesting areas on the shore. The area where penguins mate, nest and raise their chicks is called a 'rookery'. Males arrive first to the rookeries to establish and defend their nesting sites. When penguins are ready to mate, the male stands with his back arched and wings stretched. He makes a loud call and struts about to attract a female. When the penguins find a mate, they bond with each other by touching necks and slapping each other on the back with their flippers. They also 'sing' to each other so they learn to recognize each others voices. Once a penguin finds a mate, they usually stay together for years or for as long as they have chicks. LET THE PROCESS BEGIN Male Reproduction System Female Reproduction System The female reproductive system is composed of organs that produce female eggs (called female gametes or ova); provide an environment for fertilization of the egg by a male sperm (male gamete); and support the development and expulsion of a fetus in pregnancy and childbirth. Skeletal System Some flightless birds like penguins and ostriches have only solid bones, further evidencing the link between flight and the adaptation of hollow bones. Emperor Penguins form from a single cell, the zygote. Shortly into the development of the penguin, the embryo folds over itself and forms a continuous canal with a single opening and two close-off openings. The single opening leads directly to the yolk sac, and the two closed openings will form the oral cavity and the cloaca (terminal part of gut) . This is formation of the alimentary (food and nutrients) canal, or digestive tract.

The oral cavity of the penguin contains a few structures. It is covered by the bill or beak, which is a hard, keratinous (fibrous protein) structure. Penguin bill vary in shape and size, and this is dependent on the genetics of the penguin and how the penguin has evolved. Internal to the penguin bill is the oral cavity proper. Structures found within the oral cavity proper include tongue, with interesting keratinous protrusions (something strict out from its surroundings) emanating from it, and a roof of oral cavity refer as cleft palate. These keratinous spikes protruding into the back of the oral cavity help penguins hold on to fish or crustanceans that they capture when fishing for food. The Cellular lining of these structures is stratified squamous epithelium, wheich are basically layers of the flat cells that are deigned to resists abrasion. Emperor Penguins have approximately 175 different muscles, mainly controlling the wings, skin, and legs. The largest muscles in them are the pectorals, or the breast muscles, which controls the wings and make up about 15 - 25% of its body weight. They provide the powerful wing stroke essential for swimming. The muscle ventral (underneath) to the pectorals is the supracoracoideus. It raises the wing between wingbeats. The supracoracoideus and the pectorals together make up about 25 – 35% of the bird's full body weight.

The skin muscles help a penguin in its swim by adjusting the feathers, which are attached to the skin muscle and help the bird in its swimming maneuvers

There are only a few muscles in the trunk and the tail, but they are very strong and are essential for them. The pygostyle controls all the movement in the tail and controls the feathers in the tail. Which really helps them when swimming. Before we begin we must understand that the female Emperor Penguin's Reproduction system is closely related to a feamle Human's Reproduction system. The oral cavity leads into the esophagus, a structure which conducts food to the corpand eventually the stomach. The Corp can store food for penguins chicks or for when the penguins wants a snack later on. Food partially digested in the stomach is delivered to the gizzard, a thick, muscular structure which grinds food into smaller bits, After this, the digested food is shuttled into the intestine to be absorbed into the body.

The intestine of the penguin is similar to the intestine of the human being. The lining of the intestine is coverd by numerous structures called villi. The picture below elucidates the basic villus. A villus is a projection of cells that increases the abdorptive area of the intestine, and the cell covering the villus are renewed about once a week. Inside the villus are blood vessels and lymph vessels that shuttle digested nutrients into the body. Enterocytes, or absorptive cells, take up sugars, proteins, minerals and liquid from the mix of digested fish or rustaceans penguins eat. After this occurs, sugars, proteins and minerals are coveyed to the cells throughout the punguin. here is a real picture of a penguin intestine (specifically ileum). Food is digested and absorbed all along the intestine. The fate of digested food or undigested food is to end up excreted in the feces. Undigested food substance is deposited into the cloaca. A cloaca is a common dump found in penguins (and in embryological humans, even). Since this is a common dump, the excretions of the kidneys (nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid) are deposited here. Additionally, when mating, sperm leaves the male's cloaca and enters the female cloaca. So, as you imagine, the cloaca has a lot of functions. The Emperor Penguins have about 140 Bones. Emperor Penguins have very efficient cardiovascular systems that permit them to meet the metabolic demands of flight (and running, swimming, or diving). The cardiovascular system not only delivers oxygen to body cells (and removes metabolic wastes) but also plays an important role in maintaining a bird's body temperature.The avian circulatory system consists of a heart plus vessels that transport:

nutrients
oxygen and carbon dioxide
waste products
hormones
heat
Emperor Penguins, have a 4-chambered heart (2 atria & 2 ventricles), with complete separation of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body. Because the left ventricle must generate greater pressure to pump blood throughout the body (in contrast to the right ventricle that pumps blood to the lungs), the walls of the left ventricle are much thicker & more muscular. Emperor Penguins tend to have larger hearts than mammals (relative to body size and mass). The relatively large hearts of birds may be necessary to meet the high metabolic demands of Swimming. Among birds, smaller birds have relatively larger hearts (again relative to body mass) than larger birds. Hummingbirds have the largest hearts (relative to body mass) of all birds, probably because hovering takes so much energy. Avian hearts also tend to pump more blood per unit time than mammalian hearts. In other words, cardiac output (amount of blood pumped per minute) for penguins is typically greater than that for mammals of the same body mass. Cardiac output is influenced by both heart rate (beats per minute) and stroke volume (blood pumped with each beat). 'Active' birds increase cardiac output primarily by increasing heart rate. In a pigeon, for example (Butler et al. 1977):


Rest Active Increase
Heart rate 115 beats/min 670 beats/min 5.8x
Stroke volume 1.7 ml 1.59 ml 0.9x
Cardiac output 195.5 ml/min 1065 ml/min 5.4x
Oxygen consumed 20.3 ml/min 200 ml/min 10x
The endocrine system is a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body Behavioural Endocrinology of Breeding I you directly compare faecal and plasma hormone measurements and use the most suitable endocrine measure that breeding is hastened and synchronized in larger colonies due to increased social stimulation (mediated by the endocrine system). Blood and faecal samples were simultaneously collected from individual Emperor penguins for comparison, and assayed for testosterone and corticosterone (or their metabolites).

Sex differences and variability within each measure, and correlation of values across measures were compared. For both hormones, plasma samples showed greater variation than faecal samples. Males had higher corticosterone levels than females, but the difference was only significant in faecal samples. Plasma testosterone, but not faecal testosterone, was significantly higher in males than females. Correlation between sample types was poor overall, and weaker in females than in males; perhaps because measures from plasma represent hormones that are both free and bound to globulins, whereas measures from faces represent only the free portion. Faecal samples also represent a cumulative measure of hormones over time, as opposed to a plasma 'snapshot' concentration. Faecal sampling appears more suitable for assessing baseline hormone levels
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