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Games based theory for pedagogy, levelling up
Transcript of Games based theory for pedagogy, levelling up
Towards a theory of a 'Games Based Pedagogy' Nov, 2011 - Center for Internet Addiction Recovery Australia considering video game addiction as official mental disorder - New brain study on addiction to violent video games. We’ve all seen the news reports, but how do video games really affect the brain? The short answer is this:
researchers are working on it. Jenkins, 2012 cognition and behaviour Leisure cognition and behaviour positives of playing video games Hyun Han & Renshaw (2011) The brain is a malleable, “plastic” structure that can change and evolve with every stimulus we give it.
Enhancements in low-level vision & visual attention
Speed of processing and statistical inference
Perception and spatial cognition
Rehabilitations eg 'lazy eye'
Simulation training - surgeons, army, pilots, emergency services Improved visuo-spatial capacity
Decision making and object tracking
Generally, they believe gaming enhances performance on higher level reasoning and problem solving tasks
Improvements in cognitive function Leisure cognition and behaviour positives of playing video games Bavelier & Green (2011) Leisure cognition and behaviour positives of playing video games Gentile (2011) Causal short-term effect, namely that playing pro-social games led to more ‘helping’ behaviour, whereas playing a violent game led to more ‘harming’ behaviour. In a longitudinal study, they found that children who played more pro-social games early in a school year demonstrated increased helpful behaviours later in the school year. There is an extremely large body of research demonstrating a relationship between playing certain types of violent video games and increases in measures of aggressive thoughts.
Violent video games alone are unlikely to turn a child with no other risk factors into a maniacal killer Neurons that fire together wire together (Hebb, 1940). Whatever we practice repeatedly affects the brain, and if we practice aggressive ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, then we will get better at those. (Cited in Bavelier, Green, Hyun Han, Renshaw, Merzenich & Gentile, 2011) About 1 in 5 regular gamers
(4‑10% of school-age children and young
adults) seem to meet the medical criteria
that would define them as ‘addicted’. Merzenich, 2011 Time spent on screen-delivered media can be expected to steal more time away from real life.
scaffolding & multiple difficulty levels
individual prior knowledge and self pacing
immediate feedback and
sufficient practice to the point of mastery Studies of educational software demonstrate that children do learn from playing educational games. Leisure Playing games is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles (Suits, 2004). Games provide challenge and reward, whether it's a 5 second mini-game, 10 minute casual game, eight hour action game through to never ending twenty-four hour games (McGonigal, 2011). Games today come in more platforms and genres than any other time in human history (McGonigal, 2011). Pleasure in the challenge of the game. Mood-boosting and positive emotions. Jenkins, 2012 Games offer significant promise for education.
They use many of the techniques that exceptional teacher utilise: negative of playing video games positives of playing video games 'Games make us happy because they are hard work that we choose for ourselves' (McGonigal, 2011). Is leisure and play opposite to work and learning? McGonigal argues we want to be given 'more satisfying and productive work' - games give us clearer missions and more satisfying, hands-on work. Brown (2008) and Sutton-Smith (2001) mention the opposite of play is depression. (Bavelier, Green, Hyun Han, Renshaw, Merzenich & Gentile, 2011) (Merzenich, 2011) James Gee (2011) on how gaming environments can enrich problem-solving and drive innovation. http://video.pbs.org/video/1767377460 How far off are we before games become part of assessment?
Could games change assessment completely? Learning (Gentile, 2011) WoW grown from 250,000 in January 2004 to more than 11.5 million in January 2010, making it the single largest paying game community in the world.
In 2010, WoW developer Activision Blizzard earnings $5 million every single day on global subscription. Earning Activision Blizzard, 2010 cited in McGonigal, 2011 p 52. Some history of games Atari launched Pong, 1972 considered the first arcade video game, replacing electro-mechanical games (Williams, 2011) In 1980 Atari 2600, home video game system The golden age of arcade
video games was from
the late 1970s through
the 1980s http://en.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Arcade_game Coin-operated arcade games Nintendo home entertainment 1980s brought us new characters
Donkey Kong & Mario Super Nintendo, Sony PlayStation, Nintendo 64 1990s Nintendo GameCube, Xbox, Xbox 360, PS3, Wii 2001 2001 2005 2006 Servers capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously.
Most of the newer game consoles, portable devices and smart phones are capable of running MMOG games. WoW grown from 250,000 in January 2004 to more than 11.5 million in January 2010, making it the single largest paying game community in the world. Activision Blizzard, 2010 cited in McGonigal, 2011 p 52. Open-source and online games Minecraft Nine year old developed roller coaster http://www.codecademy.com/learn Fruit Ninja surpasses 300 million downloads! http://www.intomobile.com/2012/06/14/fruit-ninja-surpasses-300-million-downloads/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_Ninja US$0.99c app Game-based learning continues to gain pace as a methodology for engaging young learners in today’s connected age. Integrating games programming into teaching and learning is consistent with current educational theorists and research emphasising the potential of digital games as a teaching and learning tool in today’s educational systems (Gee, 2003; Halverson, 2005; Horizon Report, 2011; Shaffer, 2006). The very nature of games programming as a practical discipline has a unique emphasis on the logical application of trial and error, where learning evolves naturally through the cycle of testing and inquiry. Students master fundamental programming skills in the development phase of their game, and pre-test game levels, modes and beta-testing with their fellow gamers prior to final testing within the early learning centre. Learning Learning Vast array of mobile gaming devices..... making, testing and playing games more on making games.. Year 12 students teaching young learners numeracy and literacy through their educational games Example minecraft - 3D spatial & digital literacy - young learner sound editing, graphics and illustration, animation & interactivity, coding, game play | digital literacy and foundational computer science Gamification in learning Massive Online Multi-player Games (MMOG) http://www.newwaysliteracy.com/
"My goal for the next decade is to try to make it as easy to save the world in real life as it is to save the world in online games.”
2010 - 500 Million global gamers, experts at 'something'
Next decade add another billion - through affordable low energy technologies to process powerful games across the entire world.
Blissful productivity - average 22hr a week WOW gamers
3 Billion hours per week playing online games Jane McGonigal, 2010 (Ted Talks, 2010 Jane McGonigal http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world.html ) Present shifts... Games provide a context for learning a broad range of technology systems Academics and authors that I reasearch and follow online Henry Jenkins Professor of Communication, Journalism, and Cinematic Arts Catherine Beavis Griffith University Professor - Literacy & Digital Culture James Gee Professor of Literacy Studies David Shaffer Professor of Learning Science & Author 'How computer games help children learn, 2006. Jane McGonigal Ph.D. & Author of Reality is Broken, 2011 Plus the vast array on Twitter ... also, young learners are setting up servers for online gaming with friends Director of Game Research and Development We cannot develop a theoretical understanding of the educational potential of video games without suitable designs (Holland, Jenkins, & Squire, 2003). JISC Innovating e-Learning 2006: Transforming Learning Experiences online conference Imagine a place where you can be the brave hero, the kingdom rogue, or the village sage, developing a reputation for yourself that is known from Peoria to Peking. Now imagine that you could come home from school or work, drop your book bag on the ground, log in and enter that world any day, any time, anywhere. Welcome to the world of Massively Multiplayer online gaming.’ (Steinkuehler 2004: 1, cited in Beavis, 2012) Earnings - $5 million every single day on global subscription. 2010 ‘what I try to do is get within a group with people who I know are more influential and powerful within the gaming community than I am, and by getting in with them I can get in with others and it sort of goes on, pretty much the same as a new school situation...
You’ve got to have some knowledge of the game itself and how to play it and the tricks there, which is why I spend time playing with the single play so I know what to expect. [Then] I will jump straight in and multiplayer … (Beavis, 2012) Arenas of action: the presentation of self Females make up 47% of the total game population, up from 46% in 2008
94% aged 6-15 years compared with 43% of those aged 51 or older play video games.
75% of gamers in Australia are aged 18 years or older.
Nearly 1 in 5 gamers play social network games and 1 in 10 massively multi-player games (IGEA 2012).
Playing habits are moderate, with 59% playing for up to an hour at one time, and only 3% playing for more than 5 hours at a sitting.
57% of all gamers play either daily or every other day Cited from Beavis, 2012