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Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

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Abha Malik

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of Challenges to and Restoration of the Congress System

CHALLENGES TO AND RESTORATION OF THE CONGRESS SYSTEM INDIRA GANDHI DAUGHTER OF NEHRU
CONGRESS PRESIDENT IN 1958
MINISTER IN SHASTRI'S CABINET IN 1964
LED CONGRESS TO VICTORY IN 1967,71,80
CREDITED WITH
"GARIBI HATAO SLOGAN,
71 WAR VICTORY,
POLICY INITIATIVES LIKE ABOLITION OF PRIVY PURSE,
NATIONALIZATION OF BANKS ,
NUCLEAR TEST,
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Congress facedthe challenge of political succession for the second time in 2 years.This time there was intense competition between Indira Gandhi and Morarji Desai. SHASTRI TO INDIRA GANDHI This period was fraught with grave economic crisis resulting from
1.successive failure of monsoons,widespread drought, decline in agricultural production, serious food shortage, depletion of foreign exchange reserves,drop in industrial production and exports combined with a sharp rise in military expenditure. 1967 ELECTIONS Morarji Desai had earlier served as chief minister of bombay state and minister at the centre while Indira Gandhi had been Congress president and also minister for information and broadcasting in Shastris cabinet. The senior leaders backed Indira Gandhi believing that her inexperience would make her dependent on them ,but this support wasnt unanimous.It was resolved through a secret ballot which Indira won with 2/3rds majority. Nehru and Indira Gandhi Indira Gandhi and Shastri Indira Gandhi with Morarji Desai
her contender from Maharastra, a bitter critic and wanted to be the PM
of India. A secret vote took place and he was ousted........
now what was the out come.... she won...2/3 voted in her favour... and why????? SPLIT IN THE CONGRESS Indicate vs the Syndicate 2.The economic situation triggered price rise .People started protesting and there were Bandhs and Hartals all over the nation .The government saw them as a law and order problem and not the people expressing themselves which intensified the anger against the government. The communist and socialist parties launched struggles for greater equality.This period also witnessed some of the worst Hindu-Muslim riots since independence. Context Non-congressism Parties opposed to the congress realized that the division of votes kept the congress in power .Hence despite their differences they got together. he felt that with the inexperience of Indira Gandhi and internal factionalism they would be able to topple the government. Ram Manohar Lohia said that the congress rule was undemocratic and opposed to the interests of the people and come together of the opposition was necessary for the reclaiming of democracy. Electoral verdict and factors of these elections The results jolted the congress at both national and state levels. Congress lost in many states and although it managed a majority in the Lok Sabha,it was with the lowest tally of seats and votes since 1952.
These elections also brought the phenomenon of coalitions.Many non-congress parties came togeher to form joint legislative parties or SVDs (Samyukt Vidhayak Dal).
Another factor was defection,it played an important role in the making and unmaking of governments.Many congress defectos helped in the setting up of anti-congress governments. This gave rise to the expression "Aya Ram ,Gaya Ram" Amul ad depicting defection Ram Manohar Lohia Indira Gandhi had to deal with the "syndicate ",a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the congress who had installed her in the first place expecting her to be dependent on them.Gradually though she chose her group of advisers and sidelined them. Challenges faced She faced two challenges,one she needed to build her independence from the syndicate and two ,she had to regain the ground the congress had lost in the 1967 elections.She adopted a very bold strategy and turned a power struggle into an ideological one.She launched a series of initiatives that gave the government policy a left orientation and also got the congress working committee to adopt a Ten point programme .This included social control of banks,ceiling on urban property etc.
While the syndicate leaders formally approved of this ,they had some serious reservations about the same. 1969 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS The rivalry between Indira Gandhi and the syndicate came out in the open after the death of Zakir Hussain in 1969.
Despite her reservation the syndicate nominated her long time opponent Sanjeeva Reddy,as the candidate for the presidential elections.She retaliated by encouraging then vice president,VV Giri, to file his nomination as an independent candidate. Then congress president S Nijalingappa issued a "whip" stating that everyone vote for the official candidate.Suppporters of Indira Gandhi requisitioned a special meting of the AICC but it was refused.
after secretly supporting VV Giri ,the prime minister called for a conscience vote which ultimately resulted in VV Giris victory . This resulted in the formal split of the Congress,and expelling of the Prime Minister by the congress president.Indira claimed hers was the real congress,and they were divided into the Congress (organisation) and the Requisitionists. Indira perceived them as the old congress and the new congress , one which was pro poor and one which was pro rich. She projected the split as one between conservatives and socialists.

She also announced several big and popular policy measures like the nationalization of fourteen leading private banks and "privy purse", or special privileges for former princes. Morarji Desai who was the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister had serious differences with the prime minister and resulted in him leaving the party. 1971 ELECTIONS The split in the congress reduced the Indira Gandhi government to a minority,yet she continued with the issue based support of some other parties.During this time the government made many efforts to project its socialist credentials. She campaigned vigorously for implementing land reforms and introduced land ceiling legislation's. Contest All the major non-communist,non-congress opposition parties formed an alliance known as the Grand Alliance.The contest appeared to be loaded against the congress.
Yet the new congress had something that its big opponents lacked -an issue,an agenda and a positive slogan.Indira put forward her famous slogan Garibi hatao and focused on the growth of the public ,imposition of ceilings on property,removal of disparities in income and opportunity and abolition of princely privileges.Through this she generated support among the disadvantaged communities like the unemployed youth ,adivasis etc. Outcome and after The Congress and CPI alliance had won more seats than the congress had in the first four general elections.Indira Gandhis congress won 352 seats and 44% of the popular vote on its own whilst the Congress(O) only managed one fourth of with just 16 seats.With this the Congress(R) established itself as the real congress and restored its dominant position in Indian politics.
The elections were followed by conflict in East Pakistan (Bangladesh),these events further added to Indira Gandhis popularity and even the leaders from the opposition admired her . Her party swept through the state elections in 1972 and she established herself as a strong leader. add text add text add text add text Kissa Kursi Ka was a controversial film that revolved around a corrupt and evil politician. The spoof is based on ‘emergency’ and ‘Sanjay Gandhi’. The film was banned by the Indian Government (congress) and all prints were confiscated
the movie bel9ow is too long and its from the net... authenticity... not clear.....
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