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Apartheid and Segregation

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Alex Rubinstein

on 25 February 2013

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Transcript of Apartheid and Segregation

Apartheid and Segregation The Similarities and Differences Timeline of Apartheid 1948- ANP makes apartheid government policy, and forces racial segregation, as Black African, Colored, and Indian are discriminated against as non-whites Timeline of Segregation 1865- In the wake of the Reconstruction, legal enactments called "Jim Crow Laws" are adopted by Southern States to enforce segregation of whites and blacks in schools, public transportation, theaters, hotels and restaurants. 1896- In a precedent-setting case, 30 years after the abolition of slavery, the Supreme Court rules in Plessy vs. Ferguson that it is reasonable for a state to racially segregate persons within its jurisdiction. Plessy vs. Ferguson establishes that racial segregation does not violate the 14th Amendment if separate facilities are "substantially equal." 1857- U.S. Supreme Court decision denied citizenship and basic rights to all blacks -- whether slave or free. This was the start of events and actions leading up to Segregation 1913 - Natives Land Act Number 27 of 1913: Natives, or black people, were not allowed to own or rent land outside their designated areas 1948- The Afrikaner National Party's leader Francois Malan becomes president of South Africa 1910- Creation of the Union of South Africa 1914- Formation of Afrikaner National Party Also called "Black Codes" 1863- Emancipation Proclamation- freed slaves, and started to create segregation by having "freedmen" instead of slaves, because of blacks' roles as slaves still fresh in people's minds Similarities and Differences Apartheid and Segregation's groups were similar in that they both had white rule as the main factor in which was supported or against. They were also similar in that they protested through acts of civil disobedience. Major Movements The Endings Groups For and Against Apartheid:
For- Afrikaner National Party
Against: African National Congress Segregation:
For- Topeka Board of Education, Ku Klux Klan,
Against- Freedom Riders, Little Rock 9, These groups were different in that anti-apartheid groups, such as the ANC, used more violence, such as planted bombs, to protest. Anti-segregation groups used more peaceful ways to protest, such as sit-ins and using white-only facilities. Discriminatory Policies of Apartheid and Segregation Apartheid:
Group Areas Act- barred blacks from many urban and municipal areas; introduced 1950
Bantu Education Act- system of inferior schooling for non-whites introduced in 1953. Segregation: Jim Crow Laws- laws that seperated and restricted Blacks in many ways, such as preventing interracial marriage, creating segregated schools, public areas, and restaurants, and barring from sports teams Discriminatory policies of Apartheid and Segregation were similar in that both had laws that segregated many public areas between Blacks and Whites, and prevented interracial marriage. The differences between the discriminatory policies was that Apartheid had stricter policies and had a much harsher rule on Blacks, as they were forcefully moved from their homes and were prevented from living in certain areas due to laws, and segregation did not have as many specific laws restricting rights of Blacks so directly. Apartheid- March 21, 1960: 20,000 protestors congregated in Sharpeville, and more than 100 police opened fire n the unarmed crowd, killing 69 and injuring a further 180. Segregation- 1965- A massive march from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery is organized by King and the SCLC. Under orders from Gov. Wallace, state troopers and civilian vigilantes waylaid the marchers on the road to Montgomery with toxic tear gas and billy clubs. National television captures the onslaught and millions view in horror and disgust. Wallace, though regretful of the injuries inflicted on the Civil Rights marchers, maintains that he "saved their lives by stopping the march." The These major movements in Segregation and Apartheid are similar because both of these protest movements were reacted to by brutal force by police, in which they used brute force to dismantle the protests. The differences in these movements were that in Apartheid, the police used bullets, killing many people in cold blood. In segregation, the police used fire hoses and tear gas, and didn't use any firearms so people were not killed. Apartheid- apartheid ended when FW de Clerk was elected, and declared that apartheid had failed, abolished segregation laws, and lifted the ban on the ANC. Segregation: Officially ended with the Civil Rights Act in 1964, as segregation was lifted in schools, voting, and other public areas. The endings to apartheid and segregation were similar in that they both abolished previous laws that were created for racial separation, and they both gave full civil rights to Blacks who were denied them before. They end to apartheid and segregation were different in that apartheid ended with the election of a president that wanted apartheid abolished, and that the Civil Rights Act for segregation was not created by any specific president or individual, but by the government or Congress in general. Legacy Apartheid- South Africa turned into a more or less normal country after apartheid was abolished, with multi-party elections and equal economic policies, but there still is racial tension, and unequal distribution of wealth. Segregation- There is not anymore legal segregation as all the laws instating it were abolished, but there still is segregation of races living in different areas, and still racism, as groups such as the KKK are still alive, and still committing hate crimes, The similarities between the legacies of Apartheid and Segregation are that the legal side to it was abolished, and the countries have and are changing for the better, but instances of racism and tension still remain. The differences between their legacies would be that South Africa experienced apartheid later than America's segregation, so racism is more fresh in the people of South Africa than America. Also there is a larger imbalance of wealth and status between the Blacks and Whites under apartheid than under America's segregation. THE END
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