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THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS
Transcript of THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS
Infancy (from birth to 2 years)
Adolescence (13-18 years)
Middle adulthood (30-60 years)
"How from so simple a beginning do endless forms develop and grow and mature? What was this organisms, what is it now, and what will it become? Birth's fragile moment arrives, when the new born is on a threshold between two worlds." (Santrock 2002)
"In middle and late childhood, we were on a different plane, belongings to a generation and a feeling properly our own. It is the wisdom of human development that at no other time we are move ready to learn that at the end of early childhood's period of expansive imagination. Out thirst was to know and to understand. Our parents continued to cradle our lives but our growth was also being shaped by successive choirs of friends. We did not think much about the future or the past, but enjoyed the present."
Middle and Late Childhood (6-12 years)
Early adulthood is a time for work and a time for love sometimes leaving title for anything else. For some of us, finding our pace in adult society and committing to a more stable life take longer than we imagine. We still ask ourselves who we are and wonder if it isn't enough just to be. And we possibly will never know the love of our parents until we become parents ourselves.
Early adulthood (19-29 years)
" Who are you?", asked the caterpillar, Alice replied rather shyly, "I-I hardly know, Sir, just at present - at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I must have changed several times since then."
- Lewis Carroll
As newborn, we were not empty-headed organisms. We kicked, coughed, sucked, saw, heard and tasted. We slept, occasionally smiled, although the meaning of our smiles entire clear. We crawled and then we walked, a journey thousand miles beginning with a single step. Something conformed, sometimes others conformed to us. Our development a continuos creation of complex forms, and our helpless demanded the meeting eyes of love. We split the universe it halves: "me and not me". And we juggled the need to our own will with becoming what we could will freely.
Early Childhood (3 to 5 years)
In Early childhood, our greatest untold poem was being only four years old. We skipped, played and ran all day long, never in our lives so busy, busy becoming something we had not quite grasped yet. Who knew our thoughts and images and drawings took wings. The blossoms of our heart, no wind could touch. Our small world widened as we discovered new refuges and new people. When we said "I" we meant something totally unique, not to be confused with any other.
"In no order of things was adolescence, the simple time of life for us. We tried to face after another, searching for a face of our own. We wanted our parents to understand us and hoped they would give up privilege of understanding them. Or generation was the fragile cable by which the best and the worst of our parents generation was transmitted to the present.
In middle adulthood what we have been forms what we will be. For some of us, middle age is such a foggy place, a time when we need to discover what we are running from and why. We compare our life with what vowed to make it. As middle aged adults we come to sense that the generations of living things pass in short while and like runners hand on the torch of life.
Late adulthood (61 years and above
"The rhythm and meaning of human development eventually wend their to lat adulthood, when each of us stands alone at the heart of the earth and "suddenly it is evening". We learn that life is lived forward but understood backward. We trace the connection between the end and the beginning of life and try to figure out what this whole show is about before it is over.
Concept of Developmental Task
In each stag eof development a certain task or tasks are expected of every individual. Robert Havighurst defines developmental task as one that "arises at a certain period in our life, the successful achievement of which leads to happiness and success with later tasks while failure leads to unhappiness, social disapproval, and difficulty with later tasks."
The Developmental Tasks (Santrock, 2002)
1. Prenatal Period (from conception to birth)
It involves tremendous growth- from a single cell to an organisms complete with brain and behavioral capabilities.
2. Infancy (from birth to 18-24 months)
Many psychological activities are just beginning - language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination and social leanringl
3. Early Childhood (end of infancy to 5-6 years)
Preschool years. Young children leanr become more self-sufficient and to care for themselves, develop school readiness skill and spend many hours in play with peers.
4 Middle and late childhood (6-11 years of age)
The fundamental skills of reading, writing and arithmetic are mastered. Achievement becomes a more central themeof child's world and self-control increases.
5. Adolescence (10-12 years ending up to 18-22 years of age)
Begins with rapid physical change. More time is spent outside of the family.
6. Early adulthood (from late teens or early 20's lasting through 30's)
Personal and economic independence, career development, selecting a mate, starting a family and rearing a children.
7. Middle adulthood (40-60 years of age)
Expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility assisting next generation in becoming competent and mature individuals and of reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career.
8. Latev adulthood (60's and above)
A time for adjustment to decreasing strength and health, life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles.