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EDU 333 Chapter 6

Kerry Moore

Kerry Moore

on 3 October 2018

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Transcript of EDU 333 Chapter 6

Show... Don't Tell
Brain Break!
The Professionalization of Teaching
Recent Trends in Education

U.S. educational system is highly scrutinized

Since late 1940s there have been widespread efforts to improve education through legislation and funding

New models of teaching introduced

Analysis of teaching movement

Milli Eğitim İstatistikleri, Örgün Eğitim 2012-2013.
- Education at a Glance 2012, OECD.
- Milli Eğitim İstatistikleri, Örgün Eğitim 2012-2013, MEB.
- Recommended Annual Taught Time in Full Time Compulsory Education 2012-2013
- MEB Stratejik Planı (2010- 2014), 2009.
- Compulsory Education in Europe 2012-2013: The structure of the European
education systems 2012-13, EURYDICE.
- Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, Orta Vadeli Program (2013-2015).
- Key Data on Education in Europe 2012, EURYDICE.
- Millenium Development Goals Report 2012, OECD.
- Human Development Report 2013, World Bank.
- MEB 2011 Faaliyet Raporu
- İlköğretimden Ortaöğretime, Ortaöğretimden Yükseköğretime Geçiş Analizi, MEB
- T.C. Anayasası, 1982.
- www.meb.gov.tr
Preparing Teachers to TEACH!
Wednesday we will wrap up school levels, school locations, and effective schools.
Review chapters, 1, 3, & 6 and work
through the study guide. Abstract due
on Monday.
Have a great
rest of the day!
Read teacher perspectives feature on pg. 60.

What is your perspective
***Put your age and birthday too***
What are some teaching strategies that have been used on you today?
Cooperative learning groups

Visually representing an idea

Direct Instruction

Reflection Logs


Picture Walk/ Previewing

Read Aloud
PREVIEW Chapter 1
What do you
Graphic Organizers

Opens with a question on page 3

Objectives at the beginning!

Bold Headings
-sub headings

Bullet points or numbered ideas




Internet resources


Let's see what we already know about literacy....
What am I
Prior Knowledge!
Prior Knowledge
Let's try it.

Keep it in your log under reading strategies
to use!
Homework for Tuesday
Read Chapter 1 of Teaching through Text
* Four Aspects of Literacy
* Implications of Content Literacy on teachers
* Common Core State Standards

We will discuss these things ...
Literacy is a complex process, often interdependent on many processes all working together.
1. Emergent Literacy
2. Functional Literacy
3. Workplace Literacy
4. Content Literacy
Emergent Literacy
Research has found literacy processing
occurs long before students enter school. It is a gradual process that begins at home.
Functional Literacy & Workplace Literacy
This literacy requires more
than reading and writing.

It often reflects the demands
of the workplace
This literacy is what is appropriate for an individuals environment...may include reading instructions, prescriptions, operating a computer
Content Literacy ....
The ability to use reading and writing to learn new concepts.
Students need:
1. general literacy skills
2. prior knowledge of the content
3. content literacy skills

What are the implications of Content Literacy?

1. Content literacy does not equal content knowledge
2. Teaching content automatically makes students more content literate
3. Content literacy is content specific
4. In content reading and writing are complementary
5. Content literacy is important for all subject areas
6. Content literacy does not require content area teachers to teach mechanics of writing
7. Content literacy is adjusted to the tasks expected
8 Content literacy has the potential to maximize content acquisition
Why would a high school history teacher resist this idea?
Why would a 3rd grade teacher resist teaching her content through literacy?

Developed by National Governors Association Center
1. avoid differences across states
2. raise expectations (rigor)

Let's look at the common core....
The Perfect Place
for an Elf Owl

by 1st & 2nd grade
class of Anthony Lane
Elementary in Alexandria, VA
KWL chart

What we know...
What we want to know...
What we learned...

**KWHL** How will we find answers?
Reread pg. 57 and with
a friend fill in
the timeline from
1867 to 2016
Discuss the trends you notice
about the role of federal government in education?
Since World War II
Massive Growth....

In number of students
More schools built
More teachers needed
Busing & Budgets increased
* National Defense Education Act of 1958
Special Education Programs
- Massive Curricular Growth & Change
-science, math, foreign language and counseling

Initially, no special services or education was provided

Later, some attempts to accommodate in regular ed. classroom with no training or educational goals

1973- 504 Rehabilitation Act said persons with disabilities can not be excluded

1975- Public Law 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act

1990-IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

2004- Re authorization of I.D.E.A.
Increased Federal Involvement

* G I Bill of 1944 and 1966

* National Science Foundation
* Categorical Federal Aid
* Equal Educational Opportunity
Does increased funding = increased control?
How does N.C.L.B. and waivers impact you in this instance?

Changing Aims of Education
Colonial teachers
had little to no training
Apprenticeship model,
first form of teacher training
Indentured servants often
used as teacher
Benjamin Franklin, Academy and teacher training.
*Normal school
first teacher-training institute
Establishment of
state teachers

Increased Study of the Learning Process
1- Social Development Theory & Zone of Proximal Development

2- Theory of cognitive development with 4 major stages

3- Focus on student inquiry & breaking down information

4- Levels of questioning

5- Behavioral theory focusing
on behavior and training.
Into the twenty-first century....

1. G.I. Bill of Rights

2. Desegregation of schools

3. Education for All Handicapped Children Act
What is happening in education at this time that is likely to be written about in the future history of education books?

Our own philosophical and political
perspectives help determine how we
view the roles of schools and our job as educators. U.S. society generally expects...

democratic equality-
school is for the good of the public to produce good citizens

social efficiency
- schools serve private sector & prepare people for future jobs

social mobility
- education is an asset to accumulate to compete in society

We are a
society regarding education.
5 roles of schools most often mentioned..

1. Citizenship- a focus on informed, thoughtful political and community involvement

2. Workforce Readiness- a focus on getting students prepared for jobs

3. Academic Achievement- a focus on test scores, academic rigor, best practices

4. Social Development- a focus on interaction with others, cooperative development

5. Cultural Transmission- a focus on teaching the national values, rules and expectations of a country
Culture in Schools
Cultures of Families
The question of whose cultural values??
School Culture
Culture of Partnering
with the Community
School Choice
Public Schools Vouchers

Magnet Schools Private

Charter Schools Home School

Virtual Schools
*Some of our largest universities
evolved from normal schools
Changing perspectives on education~

Pg. 73 Changing Public Perspectives on Education
Teachers should be asked their political beliefs 24% yes 9% yes
Religion should be taught in public schools 39% yes 50% yes
Teachers are underpaid
44% yes 61% yes
Students are being taught useful things in school
67% yes 26% yes
What can we take away from this information?
Professional Dilemma... P.73

Multicultural Education
The lens through which we interpret things in our society. It holds rules and norms that are subtle and shared. It is
* This includes ethnicity, religion, language, wealth, etc..
* For an individual family, culture will often trump all else.
Whose cultural values should be imparted?
Building my classroom culture....
In the U.S. we have 4 general school levels...
Early Childhood Education
Elementary Schools
Middle Level Schools
High Schools
21 % of the population lives in rural areas
14% of rural population lives in poverty
On standardized assessment: #1 suburban
#2 rural
#3 urban

* teacher shortages
* Federal government currently funds incentives

- 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act
- Title I funding, Free and Reduced lunch
* School funding shortages due to local taxes

50% of population
becoming more diverse
Poverty still exists here
Out performs rural and urban students on achievement tests
-rich in libraries, museums, theaters
-greater diversity
-1 in 5 residents are foreign-born
-large gap between wealthy and poor
-magnet & charters schools are popular
Break with the past
Regulations can be obstacles
Unions can be a problem
Professional Dilemma

What has happened to play?
Ch. 3 Historical Perspectives of Education
EDU 333 Ch. 3 Historical Perspectives of Education
Agenda: Discuss Ch. 3 today
Handout Study Guide
Friday- wrap up Ch. 3 and begin Ch.6
Assessment is next Wed., Feb. 5th
late 1800's teacher-training facilities open
mid 1950's states established certification requirements
Professionalized movement
Private schools

Home Schooling
Adult Education
Educational Testing
1964 Economic Opportunity
Act provides adult basic ed.
Emphasis on mandated state testing
Value in formative & summative assessment
Standards based assessments
Committee of Ten
Seven Cardinal Principles
The Eight-Year Study
Purposes of Education in American Democracy
Education for All American Youth
Imperative Needs of Youth
EDU 333-
Foundations of American Education
Finish Chapter 6
Test on Wednesday
Abstract #1 is due
Mon.,Feb. 10th
Presentations for EDU 333
The Department of Education
1867- created to find out what works in education
1868- demoted to office of education
1979- Congress created a cabinet level position called The Department of Education
2010- 4,300 employees & $60 billion budget
2017- $100 billion budget

Who is the U.S. Secretary of Education right now?
How has technology changed the curriculum in schools?
How does it impact your instruction in _____? (music, math, etc...)

New federal initiatives include:
Race to the Top & waivers for NCLB
Common Core State Standards &
Missouri Learning Standards
We will wrap up Ch. 3

Ch. 6 to follow

If you get a job in 2015 and
teach 5 year olds they will
graduate in the year...
high school in 2028
college in 2032
Take a card. Over the weekend read and research your topic. Be prepared to teach a small group about your topic on Monday.
Using a T- Chart contrast the profession of teaching before 1950 and after the 1950’s.
* Admits any applicants until they reach capacity
* Often a lottery system
* selective acceptance
* public school with special curricula
The United States government does not operate public schools.

Each of the 50 states has a Department of Education setting guidelines for their state.

States allocate money and local real estate taxes fund public schools.

Local school boards control much of what goes on day to day in the public schools.

established in 1848 in Boston
compulsory law-In 1918, every state required students to complete elementary school.
based on age and placed in a grade
(6 year old = 1st grade)
direct instruction format until the 21st century
personalized learning environment
ages 10-14 years old
Professor Stanley Hall called for schools
designed to focus on developmental and academic needs
may be self contained or multi-classroom programs
team approach to serving students
established in Boston 1921
not all high schools are created equal
U.S. public high schools recorded a four-year graduation rate of 80 percent for the 2011-12 school year, an all-time high. Graduation rates vary greatly by state and race. Nationwide, black students graduated at a rate of 69 percent; Hispanics graduated at 73 percent; whites graduated at a rate of 86 percent.
Branson was over 90%
Emily Pilloton: Using design to change a rural community
Early interventions
Closing the gaps
At home interventions (Parents As Teachers)
Provide high quality education for 4 year olds (Head Start & Early Childhood Public School)
National Association for the Education of Young Children-- NAEYC
* They receive
high quality early
childhood education
15-20 minute verbal presentation on an educational theory, theorist or practice in education.
The topics have been preselected. (If you need to change topic you must get it approved with the professor ahead of time.)
Most current available information (cite sources)
The presenter should utilize technology, visual aids, handouts…as appropriate
3+ engagement strategies should be planned to create an active learning environment
Be professional
Questions will be taken at the end
It will be video recorded if you would like to view for reflection
Students will provide feedback on something they learned and strengths/or weaknesses in the delivery

This assignment is worth 100 points. See rubric.

~ today they set (1) policy for funds, (2) collect data and research, (3) address problems, and (4) ensure equal access. Their mission is to serve students and promote achievement.

Learning goals for chapter 3:

1. Detail the most important changes that have been made in the U.S. educational system during the past half century.

2. Explain some of the major changes in the evolution of the teaching profession.

3. Understand the evolution of teacher training in colonial America and the United States

4. Name some of the important historical trends in American education today.

Test #1

In this class you are building your philosophy of education.

Documents you will need to store in a safe place.
* Ch. 1 case study: dispositions you find important
* Reflection on technology in your classroom
* Analysis
* Ch. 6 case study: role of school in our
How ? Legislation and Funding
You will hear:
1. Raising standards to college and career ready standards
2. Showing creativity in teacher evaluations and growing effective teaching
3. Focus on growth and gains with data
4. Emphasis on turning around low performing schools
Thursday: The Character Conference 8:00-3:30
Lunch 11:15-12:15
Friday: Ch. 3 The changes in teacher preparation and recent trends in education.
Monday: We will begin Ch. 6
- funds 11,000 proposals in scientific research each year K-12 & college/university
- strictly limited money
- addressed through legislation
Elementary & Secondary Education Act, Title IX, Section 504 Act
1950's & 60's
Additional changes in the history of education...
Compulsory Law
For Friday...

Ch.6 The Place of Schools in Society
The Purposes of Schools
The Role of Culture in Schools
Ch. 6 The Place of Schools in Society

Explore the roles of schools and how they contribute to the socialization of children and youth. p.140

2. Examine culture, its characteristics, and its impact in schools.
p. 140-148

3. Explain the school choices available to parents in a growing number of school districts. p. 147-153

4. Characterize some of the differences between rural, suburban and urban schools and their impact on students. p. 158- 161
You will not just teach (math).
1. Classroom Instruction

2. Current events and issues

3. Service learning

4. Extracurricular activities

5. School governance

6. Democratic processes

7. Desirable civic behavior
1. Professionalism

2. Oral/ Written Skills

3. Team Skill Set

4. Critical Thinking/ Problem Solving
Cultural Transmission
What are examples of common culture we share in the United States of America?
* Differences can lead to conflict between parents and schools.
* In schools this may be debated in book choices, creationism, bullying, discrimination issues, holidays, languages, etc...
On piece of scratch paper brainstorm
things you will help your students learn...

1. How to listen.
* What is a good citizen?
Preparing students for the workforce... 400 employers identified these skills needed for new hires.

Types of schools available in the U.S.
How we level schools in the U.S.
* not yet legal in the state of Missouri
* used in 14 states and D.C.
In the U.S. 30% of children receive
high quality E.C.E.
End of Chapter 6
How was your school organized in "middle school" and "junior high"?
Local districts make decisions about the organization of their schools...
What kind of district did you attend?
Describe your preschool experience.
Memphis Teacher Residency
TITLE PAGE: Topic and Name

SYNOPSIS: (Summary of articles) DS with 12 font Times New Roman. Margins should be- top & bottom 1” and both sides 1”.

ANALYSIS: (Critique of and your analysis of the articles reviewed. Think how does this reading connect to your own thinking, how does it connect to other things you’ve read and learned, and does this reading change or impact your views about education?) Does your Christian world view provide perspective on this issue?

BIBLIOGRAPHY CITES: (APA style—at least 2 journal sources no more than 5 years old)

Utilize www.purdueowl.com

This paper may be turned in by email or printed out.

Due at the beginning of class. No papers are accepted late.

The Analysis
On a topic of your
Due date: Monday, Oct. 10

117,00 to 14,000 districts today
Today 60+% of students ride buses
Free and Appropriate Public Education
1. IEP Individualized Education Program

2. FAPE Free and Appropriate Public Education

3. LRE Least Restrictive Environment

4. Appropriate Evaluation

5. Parent and Teacher Participation

6. Procedural Safeguards
also called credentialism, is the social process by which any trade or occupation transforms itself into a true "profession of the highest integrity and competence."
Defined as....
We are flipping the idea of how technology will impact your instruction...

* Read and watch input on technology integration in the classroom.

* Post one discussion post on the topic of~
How has technology changed the role of the teacher? Or has it? How do you intend to integrate technology in your specific content?

15 points. Due Sunday by midnight.
What's the 1 st question you should ask when considering using technology?

What are some ways you had never considered using technology in your future classroom?

The new reports conclude that approximately 1,770,000 students are home schooled in the United States—3.4% of the school-age population.
age 7-17 yrs. in Missouri
exception of 5 yr. olds enrolled in kindergarten
Guardians held responsible
2. How to work on a team
3. How to greet people properly.
values, traditions, history, experiences, and
behaviors that are common across groups
Rooted in white, middle class Protestant values
Individualism and freedom are valued in our common

What are some commonalities we share as Americans?

Will the common culture shift as the race and ethic
patterns of our student body changes?
Common Culture
- reflects the community traditions.
- What is a tradition from your high school?
Learning outcomes

1. Detail the most important changes that have been made in the U.S. educational system during the past half century.

2. Explain some of the major changes in the evolution of the teaching profession.

Analysis of Curriculum & Methods of Teaching
Ch. 6 Place of Schools in Society

Wed.- Ch. 6- Society's expectations of school

Fri.- Ch. 6- Culture and its impact on school

Friday, Oct. 5th Analysis Due: email or hard copy due at the start of class

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

President George W. Bush on Jan. 8, 2002
increased the federal role in holding schools responsible for the academic progress of all students
test results were tied to Title I monies
test students in reading and math in grades 3 through 8 and once in high school
schools report results
spring 2014 all students must be proficient
schools must make AYP (Annual Yearly Progress) or be sanctioned
sanctions: transfer opportunities, free tutoring, state take over, Title I money restrictions
"Highly Qualified" teachers
In 2011 waivers began:

* Grade Level Expectations- SS, SC, Arts, PE

* Common Core State Standards- ELA & MA

* Missouri Learning Standards today is GLEs & CCSS

Oct. 2015: These proposed standards were presented to the State Board during a public hearing

March 2016 State Board Meeting: State Board takes action on Standards (161.855, RSMo).

March 1, 2016: Format and finalize Missouri Learning Standards.

May 15, 2016: Complete any rewrites

May 15, 2016: Distribute final Missouri Learning Standards to schools.

2016-2017 Schools implement new MLS

May 2016 - Spring 2018 Align new standards to a new state assessment

* new Missouri Learning Standards will include ELA, MA, SS, SC
Every Student Succeeds Act
was built around 4 goals:
stronger accountability for student learning,
increased flexibility & local control
options for parents,
proven teaching methods

Something you learned today...
A question you have about today...

Answer questions
Ch. 3 changes from 1950-2016 in
the federal role
1. get out your phone
2. go to play.kahoot.it
3. enter our game code
Passed Dec., 10. 2015
Annual testing will continue but the responsibilities go back to the states
• States have flexibility and responsibility for developing accountability systems and implementing teacher evaluation.
• Grants for language instruction educational programs, improving low-performing schools. The bill provides rural school districts with increased flexibility in using federal funding.
• School districts to consult stakeholders in planning and implementing programs to improve student safety, health, well-being, and academic achievement.
• Combines two existing charter school programs into one program that includes grants for high-quality charter schools.
• The bill prohibits the Department of Education from imposing certain requirements on states or school districts seeking waivers from federal laws.
• It provides monies may be used to improve early childhood education programs and specifies requirements to ensure that homeless youth have access to all services provided by the states and school districts.
Go to your expert group. Discuss and write your thoughts as a group.

Pick up a color there.

Home groups will gather by color and you will be responsible for teaching your topic in the group
3 GI Bill 4 Categorical Fed.

2 Normal Schools 5 National

1 Equal Opportunity 6 National
Legislation Science





In your
group you will
teach on your specific topic.
* Normal schools/ Horace Mann
- trained high school grads to be teachers
Finish up Abstracts for next
Friday, Feb. 12

Read the rest of
Ch. 3 and begin Ch. 6
Friday we will look at how technology has
changed education.
-sent millions to college and changed the middle class

How is technology changing public education over the last ten years?

What is to come?

How will you approach technology in your classroom?
One teacher's philosophy on the role
of the school in training students.

Write down 3 things he intentionally
teaches students besides the content.
In the United States we truly commit to educate ALL children.
1. Social Emotional Intelligence

2. Respecting differences

3. Rules of conversation

4. Norms for public behavior

5. Respect for authority

6. Team work

~ U.S. culture passed down to youth through
stories, history, what we value, our rights...
* Ch. 6 pages 144 -152
Culture in Schools & School Choices

* Finish up Abstract #1
How do I view my role in preparing students for
Should we teach only Americanisms or should we cover all of the diverse cultures represented?
- local school district boundaries dictate who attends which school
* Charter schools are publicly funded but run independently; uses alternative methods
* Must show success to stay funded
* in MO: 38 charter schools with 17,868 students
* In MO: 105,346 students, or 11.50 % of school age children, were enrolled in 579 private schools.
Compulsory Law
calls for a Free and Appropriate Education for all
- The Missouri Virtual Instruction Program (MoVIP) was established in 2007.
- MoVIP offers online courses to Missouri students in grades K-12.
- MoVIP is a tuition program offering courses to public, private and home school students.
What's something you
didn't realize about urban education?
Ch. 6 The place of schools in society

What role do I play as educator in developing people in society?

What are my responsibilities as an educator to prepare students?

How do I prepare students for citizenship, workforce readiness, academic achievement, social development, and cultural transmission?

How does culture (common, family, values, school, & community) impact the way
I prepare students for society?

What are unique ways our society educates
students in 2017?

How are innovative educators transforming
1994 Dave Levin & Mike Feinburg from Houston, TX

Public charter school called Knowledge Is Power Program

Long hours, high expectations for all, tough discipline

2017 209 schools, 20 states/D.C., 80,000 students, 82% college

How is K.I.P.P. preparing students for our society?
Knowledge Is Power Program
1. Discuss each topic

2. Choose one topic to write a developed response to submit as a group on the back
Smores Reflection...
What were 3 philosophical perspectives
that U.S. society often deems as the role
of the public school?
We are preparing
students for jobs
in 2038!
School Culture

Family Culture

Community Partnership Culture

Common Culture

Cultural Values
Which of the following ideals do you think schools should mirror? Why?

Be a model of our best hopes for society and a mechanism for remaking society in the image of those hopes.
Adapt students to the needs of society by preparing them for specific roles and jobs.
Serve the individual hopes and ambitions of their students and parents.
1. What is this area of culture all about?
2. What are examples of this area of culture?
3. Why would pre-service teachers need to be aware of this?
4. Do you have any real life experiences connected to this topic?
Have you considered the culture you will build in your
future classroom?
What will you value?
What is most important in your classroom?
Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

Robert Marzano

9 high-yield instructional strategies
through his meta-analysis.
What is the relationship between culture and engagement?
* John Thomas School of Discovery

*Start at your chart.
*Talk about ideas and write
what you can think back to
from the Poverty Summit.
*After 4 minutes we will switch

Carousel Rotation
Spanish: Hannah, Cara, Kourtney
Ag. & Secondary: Cody, Dani,
Music: Sarah, Taylor,
Elem: Mackenzi, Ciara, Chandy
Elem: Madi, Brenton,
Elem: Jahayla, Sydney, Bethany
Elem: Dawn,
Hidden Curriculum
-the implicit values and expectations that teachers and schools convey about what is important for students to learn.
My Philosophy
My Philosophy
As a society we want...

, Chase, Zack

, Mary Grace, Hannah

, Lucy, Savannah, Natalie

, Kayli, Shelby

, Tori, Makayla

, Allison, Lizzie, Joshua

& Megan

, Jake, Laura
1. Free public education
2. Right to a job
3. Vacations or fun with family
4. Birthday celebrations
5. Greetings
6. Marriage celebrations
7. Our Pledge
8. Foods we eat
9. AND ON, AND ON, ....
Culture impacts my classroom..

* in the design of the schedule

* in the management and discipline techniques

* through the lessons I plan

* in the curriculum decisions I make

* in the way I celebrate successes and failures

* an amount of money issued
by tax funds that would follow a
student to public, private, charter,
or magnet schools
Chapter 6 Summary of Learning
* USe book, notes, & Prezi.
* www.prezi.com/explore
* search EDU 333 Chapter 6
* SLides 40-88
How do you perceive the role of school in the community, family, and development of the child?

Does your experience differ from the concept of community schools?
Give 3 distinct examples of how your specific classroom could promote each of the 5 roles for schools.

Three ways of explaining a geographic area based on the population that live there.

Rural areas
are open and spread out. This is countryside where farming and natural resources are predominantly used for family income. These people travel to cities for medical care and any other basic living needs.

Suburban areas
are outlying single-family housing areas that are surrounding larger cities and metropolitan areas.

Urban areas
contain a high population where there are more than 1,000 people per block. Urban areas are very congested and have political autonomy along with any living resources needed.

Democratic Equality- Social Efficiency- Social Mobility
Workforce Readiness
Academic Achievement
Social Development
Cultural Transmission
In your teams
, summarize your group's thinking in
on the chart, prepare to
out your group findings.
1. Connector
2. Illustrator/ Recorder
3. Questioner/ Discussion Director
4. Researcher

cultural values- common culture- family culture- community partnerships-school culture

Brainstorm some jobs
that did not exist
20 years ago.
What is your plan for parent communication?
Describe the culture in Mr. White's classroom.
My classroom starts to develop a culture of its own...
Full transcript