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Plugin B3

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Brian Smith

on 26 September 2018

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Transcript of Plugin B3

Plugin B3
Hardware and Software Basics
Communication device—Equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another
Modem - Modulator/De-modulator
Dial-up access - Modem
Cable - Modem
Digital subscriber line - Modem
Wireless - NIC
Satellite - Modem
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
Digital camera – captures still images or videos as a series of 1s and 0s
Revolutionized the photography industry
Digital formats posed significant intellectual property challenges.
Digital still camera – digitally captures still images in varying resolutions
Digital video camera – captures video digitally
Webcam – captures digital video for the Web
Digital camera implications for business and society are endless
Digital Cameras
Scanners – used to convert information that exists in visible form into electronic form
Image scanner – captures images, photos, text, and artwork
Bar code scanner – reads information in the form of vertical bars (used in POS systems)
Optical mark reader – detects the presence or absence of a mark
Optical character reader – reads characters that appear on paper or sales tag
Biometric scanner – scans a human physical attribute, like a fingerprint or iris, for security purposes
Scanners
Keyboards – most frequently input devices for notebooks and desktops to enter information and commands
Stylus – often used input devices for touchscreens to enter information and commands
Pointing Device – used to input commands
Mouse – device you use to click on icons and buttons
Trackball – similar to a mechanical mouse, but with the ball on top
Sensor - device that responds to a physical stimulus (such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or control)
Touchscreen (Phone, tablet, computer, etc)
Touchpad – dark rectangle you use to move the cursor with your finger
Pointing stick – a little rod, used mostly on notebooks
Game controller – used for gaming to control screen action
Joystick – controls action with a vertical handle and programmable buttons
Gamepad – device with programmable buttons, thumb sticks, and a directional pad
Gaming wheel – steering wheel and foot pedals for virtual driving
Common Input Devices – Information & Commands
The Machine Cycle
Retrieve: The control unit sends to RAM for the instructions and information (64 bits at a time) it needs stored at the address
Decode: CPU decodes the instruction in the instruction register converting into opcode
Execute: Executes the opcode
Store: Sends the result of processing to be stored in RAM if necessary

* Billions of times per second
CPU (Machine Cycle)
Microprocessors are rated by the number of CPU cycles per second they perform.
Gigahertz (GHz)—The number of billions of CPU cycles per second (Typical CPU today)

Binary Digit (bit)—The smallest unit of information that a computer can process

Byte—A group of eight bits representing one natural language character (ASCII)

Unicode - A group of 16 bits (2 bytes) or more representing one natural language character
Central Processing Unit (CPU)—The actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together

Control Unit—Interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions


Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU)—Performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers)
CPU Essentials
Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) – about 1 million bytes (ASCII characters)
Gigabyte (GB or Gig) – about 1 billion bytes (ASCII characters)
Terabyte (TB) – about 1 trillion bytes (ASCII characters)
Capacity of Storage Devices
Flash memory device – very small storage device that plugs into USB port (32, 64, 128, 256, 512 GB, etc)
Solid State Memory
Limit to the number of read/write operations
The more you spend the more storage and read/write operations

Flash memory card – high capacity storage laminated inside a small piece of plastic
Secondary Storage
Magnetic Medium—A secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials
Uses an electron microscope to change the polarity of a location on the disk or tape. The smaller the location the more bits can be stored.

Magnetic Tape—An older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium

Hard Drive—A secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism
Secondary Storage
Viewable image size (VIS) – the size of the image on a monitor
Resolution of a screen – the number of pixels it has. For exmple for K is simply a 16:9 ratio screen with 3840×2160 (8,294,400) pixels
Pixels (picture elements) – the dots that make up the image
Dot pitch (sometimes called line pitch, stripe pitch, phosphor pitch, or pixel pitch) – the distance between the centers of two like-colored pixels (Phosphors)
Monitor Considerations
CRT – monitors that look like the old traditional TV sets
Flat-panel display – thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs
Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor – sends electricity through crystallized liquid between layers of glass or plastic
Gas plasma display – sends electricity through gas trapped between layers of glass or plastic
Light emitting diode (LED) monitor - solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity
Flexible LED technology
Touch Screens
Resistive Screens - Pressure
Capacitive Screens - Conductive coating
Surface Acoustic Waves - ultrasonic waves
Monitors
1. Input device – enter information and commands
2. Output device – hear, see, or otherwise recognize
the results of information-processing requests
3. Storage device – store information for use at a
later time
Hardware Categories
Information Technology (IT)—Any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization

Hardware—Consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system
Software—The set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
Computer—Any electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data
INTRODUCTION
SOFTWARE BASICS
Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) chip
Type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly
Shifts the burden of generating machine instructions from the compiler to the processor
Often takes several cycles to process one instruction
MULT 2:3, 5:2
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) chip
Limit the number of instructions the CPU recognizes to increase processing speed, more steps however
LOAD A, 2:3
LOAD B, 5:2
PROD A, B
STORE 2:3, A
Cheaper, faster overall, places a greater burden on the software however.
Instructions execute in a very short time (1 or 2 clock cycles). To perform complex tasks, several ops must be used in sequence or a loop
ADVANCES IN CPU DESIGN
System bus – electrical pathways that move information between motherboard components, especially between CPU and RAM
System Bus
CPU cache – Local high-speed CPU memory where instructions wait until they’re needed (80/20 rule)
CPU clock – beats to keep instructions and information moving in synchronized fashion
Multiple cores in today's microprocessors
CPU Components
CPU and RAM work together to form the brain of your computer
CPU speed measured in gigahertz (GHz)
GHz – number of billions of CPU cycles per second
CPU (machine) cycle – retrieve, decode, and execute instruction, then return result to RAM if necessary
Speed factors include clock
speed, word length, and bus width
CPU and RAM
CD-ROM’s vs DVD’s
Optical medium types include:

Compact Disk-Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

Compact Disk-Read-Write (CD-RW) Drive

Digital Video Disk (DVD)

DVD-ROM Drive

Digital Video Disk-Read/Write (DVD-RW)
OPTICAL MEDIUM
Hard disk – magnetic storage with one or more thin metal platters sealed inside the drive
A mechanical device which will eventually fail
Secondary Storage
Dots-per-inch
Printers
Common Output Devices - Monitors
xD-Picture (xD) card – rectangular; smaller than a penny and about as thick with one curved side
Secure Digital (SD) card and MultiMediaCard (MMC) – look the same but SD has copy protection; are both larger and thicker than a quarter (but rectangular)
Flash Memory Cards
DIMM Ram
CPU
4. Processing
CPU – hardware that interprets and executes software and coordinates all hardware
RAM – temporary holding area for information and software (Primary memory)
Hardware Categories
Cores: 3,120,000
Linpack Performance (Rmax) 33,862.7 TFlop/sec
Theoretical Peak (Rpeak) 54,902.4 TFlop/sec
Power: 17,808.00 kW
Memory: 1,024,000 GB
Interconnect: TH Express-2
Operating System: Kylin Linux
Compiler: icc
Math Library: Intel MKL-11.0.0
MPI: MPICH2 with a customized GLEX channel
Tianhe-2
Supercomputer
Mainframe
Minicomputers
COMPUTER CATEGORIES (BY SIZE)
UE-1008 8-Port USB 3.0 Expansion Card
Video card
5. Telecommunications device – send information to and receive it from another person or computer in a network
6. Connecting device – lets you connect peripherals to your computer, such as
Cables
Ports
Expansion boards
Etc.
Hardware Categories
CompactFlash (CF) card – almost square; larger than a half-dollar
SmartMedia (SM) card – rectangular; longer than CF
Memory Stick Media card – elongated card as wide as a penny developed by Sony
Flash Memory Cards
Read-Only Memory (ROM, typically EPROM today)—The portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power. mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware and unlikely to need frequent updates).
Random Access Memory (RAM)—The computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus

Volatility
Cache Memory
PRIMARY STORAGE

Tablet PC
Desktop
Notebook
Smart Phones
COMPUTER CATEGORIES (BY SIZE)
1 Bit = Binary Digit
· 8 Bits = 1 Byte = 2 power of 0
· 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte =2 power of 10
· 1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte = 2 power of 20 = 1,048,576
· 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte =2 power of 30 = 1,073,741,824
· 1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte = 2 power of 40 = 1,099,511,627,776
· 1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte =2 power of 50
· 1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte = 2 power of 60
· 1024 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte = 2 power of 70
· 1024 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte = 2 power of 80
· 1024 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte = 2 power of 90
· 1024 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte = 2 power of 100
Application software – enables you to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks
System software – handles tasks specific to technology management and coordinates the interaction of all technology devices
Two main types of system software
Operating system software
Utility software

Systems Software
Personal productivity software – helps you perform personal tasks
Writing memos (word processing)
Creating graphs (spreadsheet)
Creating slide presentations (presentation)
Software suite – several applications bundled together (usually productivity software)

SOFTWARE – INTELLECTUAL INTERFACE
Operating system software – controls application software and manages hardware devices

Utility software – provides additional functionality to your operating system
Anti-virus
Screen saver
File manager
Disk reorganization
Device Manager
Encryption
Etc.
Types of System Software
Word processing – helps you create letters, memos, and other basic documents
Spreadsheet – helps you work with numbers, perform calculations and create graphs
Presentation – helps you create and edit information that will appear in slides
Desktop publishing – extends word processing by including design and formatting techniques to enhance the appearance of the document
Personal information management (PIM) – helps you create and maintain to-do lists, appointments, calendars, etc.
Personal finance – helps you maintain your checkbook and handle other personal finance tasks
Web authoring – helps you design and develop Web sites
Graphics – helps you create and edit photos and art
Communications – helps you communicate with others
Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the logical organization for a database; access and use the information within a database
Application Software
Operating system software
Windows 10 - Microsoft’s latest personal computer operating system
Microsoft Windows 7
Microsoft Windows XP Home – predecessor to Vista
Microsoft Windows XP Pro – predecessor to Vista
Mac OS – Operating system for Macs
Linux – powerful open-source operating system
Multiple versions
Unix-like OS which runs on an Intel chip set
Z/OS, z/VSE, z/TP - IBM mainframe operating systems

System Software
Utility Software – adds functionality to operating system software
Anti-virus software – detects and removes or quarantines computer viruses
Crash-proof software – helps save information if your system crashes
Uninstaller software – removes software from your hard disk
Disk optimization software – organizes information on your hard disk
Spam blocker – filters unwanted e-mail
Screen saver - Prevents damage to the display screen
File manager - Used for managing and accessing the file structure
Device Manager
Encryption

Utility Software
Vertical market software – application software for a specific industry
Patient-scheduling software
Restaurant management software
Horizontal market software – application software suitable for use in many industries
Payroll, inventory, and billing

Vertical & Horizontal Market Software
3D Printer
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), also known as the system BIOS or ROM BIOS. Initializes and tests the system hardware components. Loads an operating system or other program from a mass memory device.
CDRW and DVDRW uses a special ink rather than pits
Display Port, High Definition Multi-Media Interface (HDMI), Digital Visual Interface (DVI) Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA)
Secondary Storage
Hybrid solid state drives
merges flash memory with
traditional hard drive
technology
Solid State Drives
Uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently
SSDs have no moving mechanical components
More resistant to physical shock
Relatively quiet (Traditional HD)
Have lower access time
Less latency
More expensive


Found in smart phones, tablets, cameras,
and some laptops
Today's PC microprocessors typically process 64 bits per machine cycle.
Operating systems are word length specific
Tianhe-2, a supercomputer developed by China’s National University of Defense Technology, with a performance of 33.86 petaflop/s (quadrilions of calculations per second).
For RW
Intel I7 - 6.4 GT/sec
gigatransfers per second
Switch

Relies on electricity to maintain storage
Wireless router
HDMI cable
USB Drive
Compact Flash
Card
Smart Media Card
ASCII Table
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Microprocessors
TaihuLight is capable of performing 93 quadrillion calculations per second. That makes it three times faster than Tianhe-2.

TaihuLight uses 41,000 chips, each with 260 processor cores, to give it a grand total of 10.66 million cores. There’s also 1.3 petabytes of RAM—slightly less than Tianhe-2. The new computing champ is more efficient than its predecessor, too, drawing 15.3 megawatts of power, compared to 17.8 megawatts.
Blue Ray, Advanced Optical Disk
Word processing – helps you create letters, memos, and other basic documents
Spreadsheet – helps you work with numbers, perform calculations and create graphs
Presentation – helps you create and edit information that will appear in slides
Desktop publishing – extends word processing by including design and formatting techniques to enhance the appearance of the document
Personal information management (PIM) – helps you create and maintain to-do lists, appointments, calendars, etc.
Personal finance – helps you maintain your checkbook and handle other personal finance tasks
Web authoring – helps you design and develop Web sites
Graphics – helps you create and edit photos and art
Communications – helps you communicate with others
Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the logical organization for a database; access and use the information within a database
http://neurosky.com/biosensors/eeg-sensor/biosensors/
https://lookingglassfactory.com/


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