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Love is a Journey

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Filip Rudorfer

on 21 May 2016

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Transcript of Love is a Journey

WHAT IS CMT?
Conceptual Metaphor Theory in relation to EMBODIMENT of language
Love is a Journey
Look how far we have come.
Our relationship has gotten off track.
We need to go our separate ways.
We are at a crossroads.


Gibbs, Raymond W. The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

http://cataclysmicblog.com/2013/03/12/the-nature-of-conceptual-metaphor-embodiment/

http://laral.istc.cnr.it/borghi/LanguageAndEmbodiment,ScorolliBorghi08.pdf

http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/September-2013/Designing-with-Metaphors/


Sources:

Linguists are quite not sure if WMT or CMT is the right one to describe, how metaphors work
Our experiences and physiology reflect how we connect lexemes together naturaly
Metaphors can trasfer within domains
Metaphors are more matter of thought than just a figure of speech! – Languages are embodied through experience.


Conclusion:

Based on what you have experienced and seen previously:
Imagine two people meeting and forming a relationship. One comes with the idea love is a journey and the other love is war. Does this only matter for how they describe their relationship or will it actually inform the manner in which they engage their relationship?

Exercise:

Love is War
He pursued her relentlessly.
He won her hand in marriage.
She fought for him.
She enlisted the aid of her friends.


Time is Money
You are wasting my time
How do you spend your time these days?
Time is running out.
You need to budget your time.
Is it worth your while?


Examples of transfer:

A metaphorical structure of human thought suggests that metaphors are capable of providing new meaning to the past, to daily activity, and to what is hoped for in the future; metaphors have the ability to generate new realities
Lakoff and Johnson labelled this phenomenon “embodied metaphor” because they influence the way we think and act

Embodiment

metaphor is a linguistic devise useful for explaining something abstract by referring to something more concrete. (WMT)


VS
a metaphor is conceptual or cognitive. Thus, a metaphor is able to produce thoughts and transform (TRANSFER) actions not just describe them. (CMT)


Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) questions the dominant Western Theory of Metaphor (WTM)

Is metaphor a matter of words (its nature to describe one thing in relation to another) or is metaphor a matter of thoughts and actions (its nature to understand and experience one thing in the terms of another)?



– all human brains are the same as well as perception organs, but different people use this differently –

linguist Steven Pinker – if an alien comes to learn all languages, they will come to an conclusion that concepts of languages are more or less the same – approach UNIVERSALIS

Neuroscience – psychology – linguistics – cognitive science


Filip Lothar Rudorfer, Vojtěch Volánek

Differences in scripts

LATERALIAZTION
2 hemispheres that are different
in animals – mammals have two hemispheres but they are symmetrical
human brains are specialized => high cognition – right, RH – music, art etc…


STEPS TO HUMAN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING

Examples of embodiment

If we agree on: elaborate system of conceptual metaphors lies at the core of our human mind providing an underpinning for our imagining, knowing, acting, communicating, and creating

– we have to conclude: metaphors are based on our cognitive experiences, meaning body-based

Embodiment

e. g.: open debate, reach the compromise, head sth. , house of democrats – house of representatives, remarks showed a softening of the opposition

American cognitive linguist – described metaphor as a complex phenomena
Metaphors We Live By (1980)
Came up with CMT
all languages are metaphorical -
WORKS WITH ANY TEXT!


George Lakoff


Neural synapsis

Metaphor transfer of literary meaning - based on:
SOURCE domain ------ TARGET domain

Can be examined via corpus

e.g.: corpus studies (Lackoff, Gibbbs…)

- good thesis material, visit: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/

CMT embodiment transfer

e.g.: Right means true or correct – final position

LEFT RIGHT

preference to the right side of the body – most people write with the right hand
humans have a specific body
if the body were different the language will be also different


Preferance?

For more information on embodiement and fMRI testing: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330816/

Cognition-> Experience -> New connection

How does CMTe transfer work?

metaphor is a linguistic devise useful for explaining something abstract by referring to something more concrete. (WMT)


VS

a metaphor is conceptual or cognitive. Thus, a metaphor is able to produce thoughts and transform (TRANSFER) actions not just describe them. (CMT)


Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) questions the dominant Western Theory of Metaphor (WTM)

Is metaphor a
matter of words
(its nature to describe one thing in relation to another) or
is metaphor a
matter of thoughts
and actions (its nature to understand and experience one thing in the terms of another)?

e. g.: open debate, reach the compromise, head sth. , house of democrats – house of representatives, remarks showed a softening of the opposition

American cognitive linguist – described metaphor as a complex phenomena
Metaphors We Live By (1980)
Came up with CMT

all languages are metaphorical - WORKS WITH ANY TEXT!


George Lakoff


If we agree on:

elaborate system of conceptual metaphors lies at the core of our human mind providing an underpinning for our imagining, knowing, acting, communicating, and creating

– we have to conclude: metaphors are based on our cognitive experiences, meaning
body-based

Embodiment

A metaphorical structure of human thought suggests that metaphors are capable
of providing new meaning to the past, to daily activity, and to what is hoped for in the future; metaphors have the ability to generate new realities

Lakoff and Johnson labelled this phenomenon “embodied metaphor” because they influence the way we think and act

Embodiment

Examples of embodiment


2 hemispheres that are different
in animals – mammals have two hemispheres but they are symmetrical
human brains are specialized => high cognition – right, RH – music, art etc…


LATERALIZATION

STEPS TO HUMAN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING

Differences in scripts

e.g.: Right means true or correct – final position

LEFT RIGHT

preference to the right side of the body – most people write with the right hand
humans have a specific body

if the body was different the language will be also different


Preferance?

Neural synapsis

Metaphor transfer of literary meaning - based on:

SOURCE domain ------> TARGET domain

Can be examined via corpus

e.g.: corpus studies (Lackoff, Gibbbs…)

- good thesis material, visit: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/

CMT embodiment transfer

For more information on embodiement and fMRI testing: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330816/

Cognition-> Experience -> New connection

How does CMTe transfer work?

Time is Money
You are wasting my time
How do you spend your time these days?
Time is running out.
You need to budget your time.
Is it worth your while?


Examples of transfer:

Love is a Journey
Look how far we have come.
Our relationship has gotten off track.
We need to go our separate ways.
We are at a crossroads.


Exercise:

Love is War
He pursued her relentlessly.
He won her hand in marriage.
She fought for him.
She enlisted the aid of her friends.


Based on what you have experienced and seen previously:

Imagine two people meeting and forming a relationship. One comes with the idea love is a journey and the other love is war.
Does this only matter for how they describe their relationship or will it actually inform the manner in which they engage their relationship?

Exercise:

Linguists are quite not sure if WMT or CMT
is the right one to describe, how metaphors work

Our experiences and physiology reflect how we connect lexemes together naturally
Metaphors can transfer within domains
Metaphors are more matter of thought than just a figure of speech! – Languages are embodied through experience.


Conclusion:

Gibbs, Raymond W. The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. New York: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

http://cataclysmicblog.com/2013/03/12/the-nature-of-conceptual-metaphor-embodiment/

http://laral.istc.cnr.it/borghi/LanguageAndEmbodiment,ScorolliBorghi08.pdf

http://www.metropolismag.com/Point-of-View/September-2013/Designing-with-Metaphors/


Sources:

EMBODIMENT
NEURAL
CMT
COGNITIVE
BSL (British Sign Language)
Full transcript