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Shelby McNab

on 5 April 2013

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Patterns of Illness
and the
Impact on Nursing Shelby McNab, Cassaundra Bucci, Emily Tushingham, Raphael Larocque Our Case: Meet Jane We will be exploring the life of a little girl, Jane. Jane comes from an overweight, middle class family.
Her parents are well educated, but are very busy with their jobs. The family's busy lifestyle leads them to eat at fast food restaurants approximately 3 to 4 times a week. Jane is in elementary school and has many friends and gets good grades. Jane at 45 years old She is overweight and has type II diabetes Fast Forward The number of women between the ages 45 to 65 who have diabetes in Canada has increased by almost 50,000 people in the past four years.
Women in the age group of 65 and over have the highest amount of females living with diabetes in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2012). Looking at this in Depth Childhood Obesity Children and youth in Canada are getting less active.
Over the past 30 years, child obesity rates have tripled. Studies have shown that children who are obese are more likely to remain obese as adults.
This puts them at greater risks for stroke, heart disease, hypertension, and type II diabetes (Heart and Stroke Foundation, 2011). Type II Diabetes There has been a dramatic increase in overweight children in Canada.
In 1978, only 15% of children were overweight. By 2007, 29% of adolescents were overweight or obese (Statistics Canada, 2010). Learning Objectives: To learn about childhood obesity and how it affects people throughout their life.
To learn about type II diabetes.
To discuss how this problem can be resolved, and certain barriers that impede on the resolution process.
To relate this issue to nursing and discuss how it affects nurses. Because of schools having less promotion towards physical activity, it causes Jane to not meet the recommended 60 minute physical activity time she needs each day. If Jane were to try and change her eating habits as a child by bringing healthier snacks to school, she would have felt left out because all of the other students would be bringing unhealthy snacks. This would lead her to wanting to bring unhealthy snacks so that she would fit in with the rest of her classmates, contributing to her weight. Jane remained obese as she grew to become an adult because she did not change her eating habits, or seek help from health care providers.
Jane may not have known that what she was doing was not good for her health because it is what she learned from her parent's examples. Janes parents were so busy with their jobs that they did not teach her proper eating habits, she learned as a child that eating fast food is a way to cope with stressful environments and has grown up with that knowledge. A play-based approach could be beneficial for parents, teachers, and child care providers in teaching children healthy nutritional behaviours.
Nurses often work in schools, child care centers, and other community environments where they come into contact with children at the ages when most healthy nutritional behaviours are being learned (Lynch, 2012). Children after three years of age begin to display their nutritional behaviours of their parents, teachers, peers, and child care providers food preferences and attitudes. The number of children and adolescents developing type II diabetes is on the rise. Factors contributing to type II diabetes include obesity and sedentary lifestyle (Wilson, 2013). It was found that Western countries spend excessive amounts of time watching TV, playing seated video games, and computer games. These behaviours follow adolescents into adulthood, which increases morbidity and mortality (Goldfield, et al, 2011). About 1,169,000 people in Ontario have been diagnosed with diabetes in 2010. This represents approximately 8.3% of Ontario's population.
The number of people being diagnosed is expected to increase to approximately 11.9% of the population over the next decade (Walker, 2013). The economic burden of diabetes in Ontario is estimated to be $4.9 billion in 2010. This cost is expected to increase to over $6.9 billion by 2020 (Canadian Diabetes Association, 2010). How Can This Issue Be Resolved? The goal is to have the public aware of the consequences of obesity and how they can be prevented starting in early childhood.
Our health care system needs to focus on preventative health measures in order to decrease the amount of chronic care patients that are filling up hospitals and doctor’s offices (Reay, Goodrick, Casebeer, & Hinings, 2013). Barriers Inadequate access to resources When Canadians do not have access to front line care they are less likely able to seek preventative measures, putting them at higher risk for developing chronic illness (Gutkin, 2005). This limited access is not allowing them to get the education they need on possible chronic illnesses that they may be at risk for, such as diabetes and heart disease (Gutkin, 2005). This inadequate access leads to the public being unaware of how chronic disease can be prevented. For example, we all see in advertisements that we need at least 60 minutes a day of physical activity, but we are not told how to achieve that. We do not know where to find the information in order to reach that goal. This limited access to resources has lead the public to continue with the unhealthy lifestyle they are living. Nurses are not practicing to
their full scope Nurses who are working in primary care do not practice to full scope (Constanzo, 2012). Preventative care and public health are important services that have the greatest impact on preventing chronic conditions (Callman, Hauser, Lurio, Wu, & Pichardo, 2012). Nurses are not shifting their care from treating the disease to promoting the preventative measures that can be done. This leads to families not having the education they need on preventing their children from becoming overweight, leading to further complications. Emphasis needs to be put on wellness, such as promoting good health, and focusing on the external factors that influence their health including education and living conditions (CNA, 2012). Nurses and other health care professionals are not educated enough on this new shift in practice, and this is impeding on a transition in the way care needs to be provided. Resolution To approach a shift in care, nurses need to change what they understand to be essential services (CNA, 2012). This means they need to promote preventative measures rather than treating underlying symptoms. Nurses should be educated to not focus on treating the symptoms of chronic illness; health teaching needs to be provided to the patient, this will help prevent these illnesses occurring. By adding more education on primary care and preventative measures for chronic illnesses it will help both the nurses and the public in creating a healthier environment. Nurses can make a big impact on this issue by: Health
Promotion Health
Access Health
Teaching Sustainable
Health In Conclusion.. References Calman, N., Hauser, D., Lurio, J., Wu, W.Y., & Pichardo, M. (2012). Strengthening Public Health and Primary Care Collaboration Through Electronic Health Records, American Journal Of Public Health, 102(11), el3-8. doi:http://dx.doi.org.rap.ocls.ca/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301000.

Canadian Diabetes Association. (2010). The Cost of Diabetes in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.diabetes.ca/documents/get-involved/ON-Cost-Model.pdf

Canadian Nurses Association. (2012). National expert commission report: A nursing call to action. www.cna-aiic.ca/expertcommission/

Goldfield, G. S., Kenny, G. P., Hadjiyannakis, S., Phillips, P., Alberga, A. S., Saunders, T. J., & ... Sigal, R. J. (2011). Video Game Playing Is Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adolescents. Plos ONE, 6(11), 1-6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026643

Gutkin, C. (2005). Family medicine in Canada: vision for the future. Canadian Family Physician, 51312.

Heart and Stroke Foundation. (July 2011). Healthy Weights in Children. Retrieved from: http://www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.3484343/k.2A0B/For_Parents__Healthy_Weights_in_children.htm

Lynch, M. (2012). Children at Play: An Innovative Method for Studying and Teaching Nutritional Behaviors. Pediatric Nursing, 38(3), 139-143.

Reay, T., Goodrick, E., Casebeer, A., & Hinings, C. (2013). Legitimizing new practices in primary health care. Health Care Management Review, 38(1), 9-19. doi:http://dx.doi.org.rap.ocls.ca/10.1097/HMR.0b013e31824501b6

Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2009, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.childhoodobesityfoundation.ca/statistics

Statistics Canada. (2012). Diabetes, by age group and sex (Number of persons).(82-221-X). Retrieved from the Statistics Canada website http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health53a-eng.htm

Walker, S. (2013). Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.diabetescareguide.com/prevention-type-2-diabetes-canada/

Wilson, V. (2013). TYPE 2 DIABETES: AN EPIDEMIC IN CHILDREN. Nursing Children & Young People, 25(2), 14-17. Children have a hands-on learning approach, thus visual familiarity of these characteristics of food will show a greater willingness to try foods they have been accustomed to seeing in their environment.
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