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NURS 3225: Concept Map

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nindy nahal

on 17 February 2015

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Transcript of NURS 3225: Concept Map

By: Gurinder Nahal
NURS 3225: Concept Map
Causes of
Substance Abuse
in the
Aboriginal Population
Impact of substance abuse on the Aboriginal population
What is
Substance Abuse
"Persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice"

(i.e. alcohol, marijuana, cocain, etc.)
As fur trade developed, alcohol was introduced to the Aboriginal people as a "gift" and an item of trade at trading posts

(Adjarkwa, 2009, para. 14)
The Effect/Impact of
Substance Abuse
on the
Aboriginal Population

Economic Impact
increased healthcare services used as a result from negative mental and physical health outcomes of substance use (drug overdose, Hep C and HIV from sharing needles, etc.)
increased need for law enforcement to protect safety of individuals and communities
individuals spend money on drugs and alcohol verses rent, food, education, etc.
Social Impact
(Reading & Halseth, 2013, p. 40)
increased crime
increased violence
mental health disorders
(Reading & Halseth, 2013, p.40)
family breakdown
children of parents who use marijuana, alcohol, and other drugs have a higher chance of developing same habits
children are 5 times more likely to use alcohol if there parents were alcoholics
(Shafiq, 2015, para. 5)
Impact on Individual Health
marijuana is associated with increased chance of lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and other respiratory problems
can cause anxiety
can exacerbate psychotic symptoms
short-term it may cause you to have problems with thinking and working memory
("Medical Marijuana and the Mind," 2010)
alcohol-related mortality is higher among the Aboriginal population compared with the non-Aboriginal population
rate of death due to alcohol for Aboriginal people is almost twice that of the general Canadian population
(Reading & Halseth, 2013. p. 40)
can result in hallucinations and paranoid thoughts
can cause convulsions and seizures
heart failure
(Reading & Halseth, 2013, p. 40)
Experience of Aboriginal People with Substance Use: Tamara's Story
How Nurses Can Help
many aboriginal children are taken into child protective services
main reason is because of neglect which can be caused by substance abuse
First Nations children are 2.5 times more likely to have a substantiated report to maltreatment in the child welfare system compared to non-aboriginal children
(Bennett & Auger, 2013)
(Adjarkwa, 2009, para. 7).
("World Health Organization," 2015).
Harm Reduction
Harm reduction is a non-judgemental response that meets users "where they are" with regards to their substance use and offers choice to users of how they will minimize harm to themselves
Features of harm reduction include:
"Harm reduction accepts that some use of psycho-active substances is inevitable, and that some level of substance use is expected in a society"
Humane Values
"No moralistic judgment is made, either to condemn or to support use of substances, regardless of level of use or mode of intake. The dignity and rights of the person who uses alcohol and other drugs are respected"
Focus on Harms
"The extent of a person’s substance use is of secondary importance to the harms resulting from that use"
Hierarchy of Goals
"Most harm reduction programs have a hierarchy of goals; the most pressing needs are addressed first"
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 2)
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 2)
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 2)
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 2)
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 2)
Education and Prevention Programs
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal drug and alcohol education and prevention programs are seen to prevent future harms among existing and potential users
some programs are general in scope and advocate abstinence-based philosophy, while others look at reducing health and social harms among those who problematically use alcohol and other drugs
it is important as nurses to be knowledgeable about how and where to access these programs and continually educating people about prevention and health promotion
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p. 11)
Cultural Appropriateness
it is important that harm reduction services are culturally appropriate so that they will be accessed
this involves incorporating Aboriginal culture, history, and language into existing and emerging services and an increased awareness and understanding about Aboriginal people among healthcare providers
a study of Aboriginal women drug users in Vancouver found that many of the women stressed the importance of having more service providers with "similar cultural backgrounds and life experiences"
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p.14)
Abuse. (2015). In
World health organization
. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/
Adjarkwa, C.S. (2009). Aboriginal alcohol addiction in Ontario Canada: A look at the history
and current healing methods that are working in breaking the cycle of abuse.
Indigenous Policy Journal
. Retrieved from https://ipjournal.wordpress.com/tag/christine-smillie-adjarkwa/
Alamenciak, T. (2014). Fighting for history: Uncovering the truth of residential schools.
Retrieved from https://warriorpublications.wordpress.com/2014/08/29/fighting-for-history-uncovering-the-truth-of-residential-schools/
Bennett, M. & Auger, A. (2013). First Nations and non-aboriginal children in child
protective services.
National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health
. Retrieved from http://www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/publications/lists/publications/attachments/7/protective_services _en_web.pdf
Dell, C. A. & Lyons, T. (2007). Harm reduction policies and programs for persons of
Aboriginal descent.
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
. Retrieved from http://
www.ccsa.ca/Resource % 20Library/ccsa-011515-2007.pdf
Medical marijuana and the mind. (2010).
Harvard Mental Health Letter
, 26(10), 1-3
Nagai, K. (2011). Celebration of Bill Reid pole. Retrieved from http://www.billreidgallery.ca/
Reading, J. & Halseth, R. (2013).
Pathways to Improving Well-Being for Indigenous
Peoples: How Living Conditions Decide Health
. Prince George, BC: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Shafiq, S. (2015). Parenting, child development, and substance abuse. In
Ontario Health
Promotion E-Bulletin
. Retrieved from http://www.ohpe.ca/taxonomy/term/95/0/feed

Native children in residential schools
(Alamenciak, 2014)
Celebration of Bill Reid pole
(Nagai, 2011)
(Reading & Halseth,2013)
Before the arrival of the European population, the Aboriginal people had no experience with alcohol
(Adjarkwa, 2009, para. 7)
Loss of Cultural Identity & Coping Mechanism
For many, the use of drugs and alcohol are used as a way to cope and escape from the horrific events that took place at the residential schools
Poverty & Social Exclusion
Poverty and social exclusion are harmful to health psychologically, emotionally, and physically and increases the risk of developing an addiction
(Reading & Halseth, 2013)
Unemployment and bad working conditions can lead to stress, which can lead to unhealthy behaviours, such as alcohol and drug use
Education Level
(Reading & Halseth, 2013)
Education plays a significant role in determining the health status of people; lower education levels are associated with lower health status and socioeconomic conditions
(Reading & Halseth, 2013
although Aboriginal people have the highest abstinence from alcohol than the general population, there are still higher levels of heavy drinking (binge drinking)
rate of death due to alcohol abuse among the Aboriginal people is nearly twice that of the general Canadian population
incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome is higher in Aboriginal Canadians than non-Aboriginals
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p.6)
More Statistics!
studies indicate that indigenous Canadians experience high rates of non-medical drug abuse(double the rate of the general Canadian population)
morbidity rate from illicit drug use is almost 3 times higher for Aboriginal people than the general Canadian population
(Dell & Lyons, 2007, p.7)
Full transcript