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The Cell Cycle/Mitosis

The Cell cycle
by

Gary Malone

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of The Cell Cycle/Mitosis

#1
4 Step Quiz
Mitosis
An organism must have cells that grow and divide...
Replacing old cells and making new ones are done through cell division.
Cells remain small to facilitate fast transportation through the cell as materials are constantly entering
(Endocytosis)
and exiting
(Exocytosis)
the cell.
Cellular Growth and Reproduction
Interphase
Stages:
G1-Chromosomes are not visible as they are uncoiled.
S Phase- DNA replication occurs during this S (synthesis) phase.
G2- The cell will continue to to produce proteins needed to completely support the two daughter cells to come.
 A. Carriers of
genetic material
from generation to generation.
B. They seem to appear and vanish during the process of cell division.
C. Extremely important that the chromosomes are transmitted properly during cell division.
Allows daughter cells to contain the
correct amount
of genetic material.
Chromosomes-structures
containing
DNA
found in the nucleus
2
Characterized by a period of growth (interphase) and a period of division (mitosis).
A.
Interphase
-majority of a cell’s life is spent in this phase. Phase is characterized by:
Growth
in size and carrying out of metabolic processes.
Chromosomes are duplicated in preparation for
mitosis.
This is the time where the cell is “being a cell.”
The Cell Cycle-sequence of
growth and division
of a cell
3
1. Chromatin coils into chromosomes
2. Sister
chromatids
are exact copies of each other and held together by the centromere (belt).
3. Nucleus
disappears
as the nuclear envelope and nucleolus desintegrates.
4. spindle forms
The Cell-Cycle Cont...
1. Sister chromatids
line up
on the equator of the cell.
2. Arangement is important = each new cell receives an
identical
and complete set of chromosomes.
1. Starts with the
separation
of sister chromatids.
2. Chromatids are pulled apart and make their way toward
opposite side
s of the cell.
1. Starts as the chromatids reach
opposite ends
of the cell.
2. Cell prepares to become two
daughter cells
Chromosomes unwind
Nucleolus and nuclear envelope
reappear.
1. Cell’s
cytoplasm
divides
2. Animal cells-cell membrane pinches along the equator.
3. Plant cells-cell plate is formed for separation
4. The process proceeds in both types of cells until two daughter cells are formed.
Two new daughter cells with chromosome sets identical those of the parent cell.
Resulting cells will carry out the same
functions
as the parent cell and will grow and divide as well.
Results of Mitosis
A cell that is too big will take too long for essential materials to get to where they need to go and risk the life of not just the tissue or organ, but the organism itself.
Anaphase-
third
phase of mitosis.
Metaphase
-second and shortest phase of mitosis.
B. Mitosis-period of
division
for a cell. Results in two daughter cells with each containing a complete set of identical chromosomes (genetic material). Cell division for
growth, and replacement.
Prophase-
first and longest
phase of mitosis.
Telophase
-forth step in mitosis.
C. Cytokenisis-during and after telophase
Bonus!!!
#2
2. What "phase" does a cell spend the majority of its life?
This process finishes after Mitosis, but begins in the final phase of mitosis...
Which cell do you think is unable to undergo mitosis?
Poll Question!!!
A
B
White Blood Cell
Nerve Cell
C
Skin Cell
Why are Cells so small?
Human somatic cells go through the 6 phases included in mitosis in 1/2 to 1 1/2 hours, depending on the kind of tissue being duplicated.
A Somatic Cell: any body cell except a reproductive cell (non-reproductive cell)
It take skin cells 20-24 hours to undergo cell division
The cells of organs like the liver take a year or more to undergo cell division.
Answer: Cytokinesis
Certain cells, once they reach maturity, never fully complete mitosis. Some remain in G1 stage or like nerve cells never enter G1, but might be classified as being in a G 0 stage.
Objective:
In this lesson you will know the steps each cell must take for organisms, like your body, to survive and thrive.

Cell Division and Mitosis

SPI 1.4:
- Sequence a series of diagrams that depict chromosome movement during plant cell division.
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