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Toulmin Argumentation - AP English Language and Composition

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Carleena Hodge

on 25 February 2016

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Transcript of Toulmin Argumentation - AP English Language and Composition

SIDE A
SIDE B
TOULMIN
ARGUMENT

Everything's an Argument
Claim
The statement being argued
Qualifier
Statements that limit the strength of the argument or statements that propose the conditions under which the argument is true
Good Reasons
Warrants
the general, hypothetical logical statements that serve as bridges between the claim and the data
Backing
statements that serve to support the warrants
Evidence
Authority
Conditions of Rebuttal
Counter-arguments or statements indicating circumstances when the general argument does not hold true
Responses

Toulmin Outline
Making Claims
Toulmin Arguments begin with
claims
, debatable and controversial statements or assertions you hope to prove
.
A claim answers the question
“Where do you stand on that?”

Examples of simple claims:
Vegetarianism is the best choice of diet.
NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars.
Offering Evidence and Good Reasons
You can begin developing a
claim
by drawing up good
evidence
that backs up the point you're trying to make.
Evidence and Reasons ---> SO Claim
-Personal Experience
-Anecdotes
-Facts
-Authorities
Example: A student argues that there isn't enough space for bicycles on campus.
Continued...
It's important to note that when making your own arguments, you should try to put claims and reasons together early in the writing process to create enthymemes.
Bicycle parking spaces should be expanded because the number of bikes on campus far exceeds the available spots.
It's time to lower the drinking age because I've been drinking since I was 14 and it never hurt me(this is not personal).

Reason + Claim= Major Terms of Argumenty
Determining Warrants
What is a warrant?
The warrant is a logical and persuasive connection between a claim and the reasons and data supporting it.

Answers “How exactly do I get from the data to the claim?”

Gives you the authority to proceed with your case. Eg… a legal warrant
Continued...
Warrant
A warrant is often unstated and requires the reader or listener to recognize the underlying reasoning that helps make sense of the claim. This gives a space for the other person to question and expose the warrant, and perhaps show why it's weak.
Ask these questions:
If I find myself agreeing with the person, what assumptions about the subject matter do I share with them?
If I disagree, what assumptions are at the heart of that disagreement?
Developing a Warrant
To develop a warrant you use;
Ethos
credibility
Logos
logic, deduction
Pathos
emotional or motivational appeals
Shared Values
fairness and free speech
Six Strategies of a Warrant
Generalization Warrant-
connects what is true to what is likely true from which the same conclusion was drawn
Sign Warrant-
connects evidence as a sign, clue, or symptom of the claim
Authority Warrant-
connects the evidence to authoritative sources in support of the claim
Analogy Warrant-
connects the evidence to the claim using analogies of similar relevant situations, events, or precedents
Causality Warrant-
connects the evidence as being caused by or the result of the claim
Principle Warrant-
connects the evidence to the claim as an application of relevant principles
The six strategies establish the relationship between the evidence and the claim
Offering Evidence: Backing
Continued...
In the Toulmin Model, backing is the evidence you offer to support your claim.
Backing is typically involved in the second triad of the Toulmin Model and is typically done after your argument has been outlined.
You must satisfy readers in order to defend any claim by stating that questionable sources are defensible.

Backing for an argument gives additional support to the warrant by answering different questions.
Backing consists of further assurances or data without which the assumption lacks authority.
Backing tells the audience the reasons the warrant is a rational one.

Continued...
Without Backing, audience members may question the reasoning in the argument.
Backing appears to have its greatest effect on the credibility of an argument or speaker. With Backing, the argument seems more credible.

Backing, as Toulmin says, is what we come up with if we are asked "why in general this warrant should be accepted as having authority".
Backing includes any type of support material. Most likely it consists of Statistics, Examples and Testimony.

Backing Example:
Toulmin Diagram:
DATA
WARRANT
BACKING
REBUTTAL
QUALIFIER
CLAIM
Using Qualifiers
The qualifier tempers the claims, making it less absolute
Using qualifiers makes writing more “precise and honest”
Qualifiers state the degree of force or probability to be attached to a claim
It also states how sure the arguer is about his/her claim

Examples… of my awesomeness (courtesy of Mrs. Mumaw.)

Few
It is possible
Rarely
It seems
Some
It may be
Sometimes
More or less

Most
One might argue
Often
Perhaps
In some cases
Many
Typically
Routinely

Under these conditions
Possibly
For the most part
If it were so
In general

Qualified vs. Unqualified
Unqualified Claim
People who don’t go to college earn less than those who do.

Qualified Claim
In
most cases
, people who don’t go to college earn less than those who do.
Understanding Conditions of Rebuttal
Rebuttal acknowledges exceptions or limitations to the argument
Admits to those circumstances or situations where the a argument would not hold
Explains terms and conditions necessitated by the qualifier
Shows the audience that the author is not just trying to sweep the counter argument under the mat, adds credibility

Three Approaches to Rebuttals:
acknowledging some of the views of the opposing argument. Often times it is a pick and choose scenario.
Strategic Concession
showing weaknesses and shortcomings in the opponent's position to reason why their side should be rejected.
Refutation
showing different reasons as to why there is no rational way of the opponent's argument being correct or accepted.
Demonstration
of Irrelevance
Work Cited:
http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/toulmin2.htm
http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/sites/default/files/Posted/Common/Resources_web_book/Toulmin_Model_of_Argumentation.pdf
http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/sites/default/files/Posted/Common/Resources_web_book/Toulmin_Model_of_Argumentation.pdf http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/toulmin2.htm
http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/toulmin2.htm
"The Toulmin Model of Argumentation." The Toulmin Model of Argumentation. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Ruszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything's an Argument: With Readings. Boston: Bedford/St Martin's, 2010. Print.
http://www.ics.uci.edu/~alspaugh/cls/shr/argument.html


N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.navigatingaccounting.com/sites/default/files/Posted/Common/Resources_web_book/>.
"The Toulmin Model of Argumentation." The Toulmin Model of Argumentation. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
"Toulmin Model." Toulmin Model. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016.
"Toulmin Model." Toulmin Model. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2016. <http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/rgass/toulmin2.htm>.
Www.navigatingaccounting.com. THE TOULMIN MODEL OF ARGUMENTATION (n.d.): n. pag. Web.
Thomas A. Alspaugh. “Toulmin’s Structure of Arguments” . Apr. 01, 2010. Web. Feb. 19, 2016

Real MLA Works Cited..
By: Wyatt Campbell, Kiara Craven, Kyle Dierking, Cianna Duncan, Carleena Hodge, Laura Johnson, Logan Lienhart, Samuel Meyer, Ethan Richardson, Timothy Sherrard, Megan Siltz, Jacob Streib, Asher Wheat, and Emily Yellina
THANK
YOU!
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