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End of War in Bosnia Herzegovina
Transcript of End of War in Bosnia Herzegovina
End of The War in Bosnia Herzegovina
Negative peace is the absence of war
Positive peace is "A social condition in which exploitation is minimized or eliminated and in which there is neither overt violence nor the more subtle phenomenon of underlying structural violence."
UNSC asked NATO to start air strikes in 1994
Before and after
Naomi Bruijnooge, Inga Steinberg & David Boers
A negative peace
1994: Washington Agreement
End of Croat-Bosniak conflict
1995: Dayton Agreement
End of War in BiH
Pre-war attempt to prevent all out war by European Commission
Izetbegovic withdrew support after signing the treaty.
Vance-Owen Plan 1993
(Positive) Peace building attempts in Bosnia Herzegovina
UN representative Vance and EC representative Owen
Dissolve Bosnia Herzegovina into 10 autonomous regions
Signed by Karadzic, but rejected by Serb National Assembly
Tremendous international pressure
The Dayton agreement
Milosevic, Izetbegovic and Tudman were coerced to broker a peace.
Signed in 1995:
Federation of Bosnia Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.
Both have own government, parliament, president and police force.
Both had own armed forces until 2005
Implementation of Dayton agreement
NATO forces were dispatched throughout Bosnia Herzegovina
OSCE organized first free elections
Peace was established through international pressure and coercion.
Serbian Pre-War Goals
12 May 1992, Momcilo Krajisnik (President of the RS National Assembly)
"DECISION ON STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE SERBIAN PEOPLE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA"; published in the Official Gazette of the Republika Srpska on 26 November 1993
"The strategic objectives or priorities of the Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina are to:
1. Establish State borders separating the Serbian people from the other two ethnic communities.
2. Set up a corridor between Semberija and Krajina.
3. Establish a corridor in the Drina river valley, that is, eliminate the Drina as a border separating Serbian States.
4. Establish a border on the Una and Neretva rivers.
5. Divide the city of Sarajevo into Serbian and Bosnian Muslim parts and establish effective State authorities in both parts.
6. Ensure access to the sea for Republika Srpska."
Establish State borders separating the Serbian people from the other two ethnic communities.
Divide the city of Sarajevo into Serbian and Bosnian Muslim parts and establish effective State authorities in both parts.
cost, risks and fear of war + benefits of peace
benefits of war + cost, risk and fear of peace
The absence of direct violence.
A social condition in which exploitation is minimized or eliminated and in which there is neither overt violence nor the more subtle phenomenon of underlying structural violence.
It denotes the continuing presence of an equitable and just social order, as well as ecological harmony.
Do you think the peace in Bosnia Herzegovina will last?
Sustainability of negative peace?
Roland Kostić, Ambivalent Peace: External Peacebuilding Threatened Identity and Reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2007
Kori Schake, “Dayton Peace Accords: Success and Failure” in Studies in Contemporary History and Security Policy Vol. 3, 1999
Bar-Tal, D. (2013) Intractable Conflicts: Socio-Psychological Foundations and Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Toward a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change, and Civil War, 1816-1992." The American Political Science Review 95, no. 1 (2001): 33-48.
David Boers: slide 1-8
Inga Steinberg: slide 9-14
Naomi Bruijnooge: slide 14-18
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