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Heidi Tarman

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of HAIRCOLORING

One of the most creative, challenging and popular salon services is haircoloring. It also has the potential for being one of the most lucrative areas in which a stylist can choose to work. Nearly all adults and many teens now color their hair. You will probably find that most of your clients, at some time or another, will want to enhance their hair color, change their hair color or cover gray. Client who have their hair colored usually visit the salon every four to twelve weeks. These are the kind of regulars you want in your client base.
Why Study Haircoloring?
Haircolor services provide stylists and clients with an opportunity for creative expression and artistry
Clients increasingly ask for and require excellent haircoloring services to cover gray, to enhance their haircuts and to camouflage face-shape imperfections
Haircolor products employ strong chemical ingredients to accomplish services, so being aware of what these chemicals are and how they work will enable you to safely provide color services for your clients
Why People Color Their Hair
A few common reasons clients color their hair include:
Cover up or blend gray(unpigmented hair)
Enhance an existing haircolor
Create a fashion statement of self-expression
Correct unwanted tones in hair caused by environmental exposure such as sun or chlorine
Accentuate a particular haircut
As a trained professional, you will learn which shades of color are most flattering on you clients and which products and techniques will achieve the desired look.
Did you know?
(1 word) is a professional, industry-coined term referring to artificial haircolor, products and services.
Hair color (2 words) refers to the natural color of hair.
Identifying Natural Hair Color and Tone
Learning to identify a client's natural hair color is the most important step in becoming a good colorist. Ranging from black to brown to red and from dark blonde to light blond. Hair color is unique to each individual; no two people have exactly the same color. There are 3 types of melanin in the cortex:
is the melanin that lends black and brown colors to hair
is the melanin that gives blond and red colors to hair.
Mixed melanin
is a combination of natural hair color that contains both pheomelanin and eumelanin.

Chapter Outline
Why study haircoloring?
Why people color their hair
Hair facts
Identifying natural hair color and tone
Types of haircolor
Haircolor formulation
Haircolor applications
Using lighteners
Using toners
Special effects haircoloring
Special challenges in haircolor/corrective solutions
Haircoloring safety precautions
Hair Facts
The structure of the client's hair and the desired results determine which haircolor to use. The hair structure affects the quality and ultimate success of the haircolor service. Some haircolor products may cause a dramatic change in the structure of the hair, while others cause relatively little change. Knowing how products affect the hair will allow you to make the best choices for your client.
Hair Structure
Hair is composed of the following 3 major components:
Cuticle. Outermost layer, protects the interior cortex layer and contributes up to 20% of the overall strength of the hair.
Cortex. Middle layer

and gives the hair the majority of its strength and elasticity.
It contains the natural pigment called melanin that determines hair color.
Melanin granules are scattered between the cortex cells like chips in a chocolate chip cookie.
Medulla. The innermost layer of the hair. It is sometimes absent from the hair and does not play a role in the haircoloring process.
Hair texture is the diameter of an individual hair strand.
Large-, medium-, and small-diameter hair strands translate into coarse, medium and fine hair textures, respectively. Melanin is distributed differently according to texture.
The melanin granules in fine hair are grouped more tightly, so the hair takes color faster and can look darker.
Medium-textured hair has an average reaction to haircolor.
Coarse-textured hair has a larger diameter and loosely grouped melanin granules, so it can take longer to process.
Another aspect that plays a role in haircoloring is density. Hair density, the number of hairs per square inch, can range from thin to thick. Density must be taken into account when applying haircolor, to ensure proper coverage.
Porosity is the hair's ability to absorb moisture.
Porous hair accepts haircolor faster, and haircolor application on porous hair can result in a cooler tone than application on less porous hair. Here is a description of degrees of porosity:
Low porosity
. The cuticle is tight. The hair is
, which means it is difficult for moisture or chemicals to penetrate. Which will require a longer processing time.
Average porosity
. The cuticle is slightly raised and process time is average.
High porosity
. The cuticle is lifted. The hair is overly porous and takes color quickly
; color also tends to fade quickly. Permed, colored, chemically relaxed and straightened hair will have a high degree of porosity.
See page 631 for how to test for porosity.
Contributing pigment
, also known as
, is the varying degrees of warmth exposed during a permanent color or lightening process. Usually when you lighten natural hair color, the darker the natural level, the more intense the contributing pigment. This must be taken into consideration before the haircolor selection is made. Haircoloring modifies this pigment to create new pigment.
The Level System
is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color. Level is the saturation, density or concentration of color. The level of color answers the following question: How much color?

level system

is a system that colorists use to determine the lightness or darkness of a hair color.

Hair color levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 the lightest.
Names of the colors vary by manufacturer, the important thing is being able to identify the degrees of lightness to darkness (depth) in each level.
Identifying Natural Level
Identifying natural level is the first step in performing a haircolor service.
Your most valuable tool is the color wheel.
Haircolor swatch books provide a visual representation as well.
To determine the natural level, perform the following 4 steps:
Take a 1/2 inch square section in the crown area and hold it up from the scalp, allowing light to pass through.
Using the natural level-finder swatches provided by the manufacturer select a swatch tht you think matches the section of hair and place it against the hair. Remember, you are trying to determine the depth lvel (darkness or lightness). Do not part or hold the hair flat against the scalp; that will give you an incorrect reading, as the hair will appear darker.
move the swatch from the scalp area along the hair strand.
Determine the natural-hair color level.
Gray Hair
Gray hair is hair that has lost its pigment and is normally associated with aging. Loss of pigment increase with age, few people ever become completely gray haired. They gray can be solid or blended throughout the head as in salt-and-pepper hair. Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor. To be discussed later in this chapter.
Color Theory
Color is described as a property of objects that depends on the light they reflect and is perceived (by the human eye) as red, green, blue and other shades. Before you attempt to apply haircoloring products, it is important to have a general understanding of color theory. A
base color
is the predominant tone of a color. Once you have a better understanding of oclor theory, you will see how each haircolor manufacturer associates base colors with color lines.
The Law of Color
The law of color is a system for understanding color relationships.
When combining colors, you will always get the same result from the same combination.
Primary colors are pure or fundamental colors (red, yellow and blue) that cannot be created by combining other colors.
All colors are created from these 3 primary colors. Colors with a predominance of blue are cool colors, wheras colors with a predominance of red and/or yellow are warm colors.
Blue is the strongest of the primary colors
and is the only cool primary color. In addition to coolness, blue can also
bring depth or darkness to any color.
Red is the medium primary color. Adding red to blue-based colors will make them appear lighter: adding red to yellow colors will cause them to appear darker.
Yellow is the weakest of the primary colors. When you add yellow to other colors, the resulting colors will look lighter and brighter.
When all 3 primary colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color is brown.
Secondary Colors
A secondary color is a color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.
The secondary colors are green, orange and violet.
Tertiary Colors
A tertiary color is an intermediate color achieved by mixing a secondary color and its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in equal amounts.
Natural-looking haircolor is made up of a combination of primary, secondary and tertiary colors.
Complementary Colors
Complementary colors are primary and secondary colors positioned directly opposite each other on the color wheel.
Complementary colors neutralize each other. When formulating haircolor, you will find that it is often your goal to emphasize or distract from skin tones or eye color. You may also want to neutralize or refine unwanted tones in the hair. Understanding complementary colors will help you choose the correct tone to accomplish these goals.
Tone or Hue of Color
, also known as
, is the balance of color.
The tone or hue answers the question of which color to use based on the client's desired results.
These tones can be described as warm, cool or neutral.

Warm tones can look lighter than their actual level. These tones are golden, orange, red and yellow. Some haircolors use words such as auburn, amber, copper, strawberry and bronze, which may be a better way to discuss and describe haircolor with the client.
Cool tones can look deeper than their actual level.
These tones are blue, green and violet. Some describe cool tones as smoky or ash to the client. Natural tones are warm tones and are described as sandy or tan.

refers to the strength of a color. It can be described as soft, medium or strong. Color intensifiers are tones that can be added to a hair color formula to intensify the result.

Base color is the predominant tone of a color. Each color is identified by a number and a letter. The number indicates the level and the letter indicates the tone. Example: 6G is Level 6-Dark Blond with a G - gold base. When you begin selecting a formula, you must have a good idea of what tones the client likes and dislikes.

Select warm base colors to create brighter colors and cooler base colors to keep the color result more ash, revealing less gold in the hair. Add a neutral base color to formulate haircolor that will soften and balance colors. Neutral base colors are often used to cover gray hair.
Types of Haircolor
Haircoloring products generally fall into 2 categories: nonoxidative and oxidative. The classification of nonoxidative haircolor are temporary and semipermanent (traditional). The classification of oxidative haircolor are demipermanent (deposit only) and permanent (lift and deposit). All these products except temporary color require a patch test.
All permanent haircolor products and lighteners contain both a developer, or oxidizing agent, and an alkalizing ingredient.
The roles of the alkalizing ingredient--ammonia or ammonia substitute-- are as follows:

Raise the cuticle of the hair so that the haircolor can penetrate into the cortex.
Increase the penetration of dye within the hair.
Trigger the lightening action of peroxide.
Temporary Haircolor
For those of us that want of neutralize yellow hair or unwanted tones,
temporary haircolor, a nonpermanent color whose large pigment molecules prevent penetration of the cuticle layer,
allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing, is a good choice. Temporary haircolors are nonoxidation colors that make only a physical change, in the hair shaft, and
no patch test is required.
Temporary colors are available in the following variety of colors and products:
Color rinses applied weekly to shampooed hair to add color; the hair is then styled dry.
Hair mascara used for dramatic effects.
Spray-on haircolor that is easy to apply; used for special effects.
Color-enhancing shampoos used to brighten, impart slight color, and eliminate unwanted tones.
Semipermanent Haircolor
semipermanent haircolor
is a no-lift deposit-only nonoxidation haircolor that is not mixed with peroxide and is formulated to last through several shamoos, depending on the hair's porosity. The pigment molecules are small enough to diffuse out of the hair during shampooing, thus fading with each shampoo. Traditional semipermanent haircolor only lasts four to six weeks, depending on how frequently hair is shampooed. It does not lighten hair, so it does not require maintenance of new growth. Although it is considered gentler than permanent haircolor, it contains some of the same dyes and requires a patch test 24 - 48 hours before application. Traditional semipermanent colors are used right out of the bottle/tube.
Demipermanent haircolor

also known as
no-lift deposit only
is formulated to deposit but not lighten color.
These colors are able to deposit without lifting because they are usually less alkaline than permanent colors and are mixed with a low-volume developer. Decolorization requires a high pH and a high concentration of peroxide. Many demipermanent haircolors use alkalizing agents other than ammonia, and oxidizing agents other thatn hydrogen peroxide. A
haircolor glaze
is a common way to describe a haircolor service that adds shine and color to the hair. Demipermanent haircolors are ideal for the following objectives:
Introducing a client to a color service.
Blending or covering gray.
Refreshing faded permanent color on the midshaft and ends.
Making color corrections and restoring natural color.
By their very nature, demipermanent haircolors deepen or create a change in tone on the natural hair color. They are available in a gel, cream or liquid form. Also, it requires a patch test 24 - 48 hours before application.
Permanent Haircolor
Permanent haircolors
lighten and deposit color at the same time and in a single process because they are more alkaline than demipermanent colors and are usually mixed with a higher-volume developer.

Permanent haircolor is used to match, lighten and cover gray hair.
They require a patch test 24 - 48 hours before application.
Permanent haircolors contain uncolored dye precursors, which are very small and can easily pentetrate into the hair shaft.
These dye precursors, called
aniline derivatives
, contain small, uncolored dyes that combine with hydrogen peroxide to form larger, permanent dye molecules withing the cortex.
These molecules are trapped within the cortex and cannot be easily shampooed out. Permanent haircolors can also lighten (make a permanent change in) the natural hair color, which is why these products are considered permanent.
A technique called a
soap cap
is a combination of equal parts of a prepared permanent color mixture an shampoo used during the last five minutes of a haircolor service and worked through the hair to refresh the ends.
Permanent haircoloring products are regarded as the best products for covering gray hair.
They remove natural pigment from the ahir through lightening, while at the same time adding artificial color to the hair. The action of removing and adding color at the same time, which blends gray and non-gray hair uniformly, results in a natural-looking color.
Natural and Metallic Haircolors
Haircolors that are not used in the salon, but which you should still be familiar with, are natural or vegetable haircolors and metallic haircolors. Metallic haircolors is also referred to as gradual colors. Repeated use of these types of colors cna create a buildup on the hair causing a grayish or green cast.
Natural Haircolors

Natural haircolors
, also known as
vegetable haircolors,
such as henna, are colors obtained from the leaves or bark of plants. They do not lighten natural color. Results tend to be weak, and the process tends to be lengthy and messy. Shade ranges are limited, also. Many salon products cannot be applied over natural haircolors.
Metallic Haircolor
Metallic haircolors, also known as
gradual haircolors,
are haircolors containing metal salts that change hair color by progressive buildup and exposure to air, creating a dull, metallic appearance.
These products require daily application and historically hae been marketed to men. Main problems are unnatural-looking colors and limited range of colors.
Do not use oxidizing haircolor or haircolor with peroxide on hair that has been treated with a metallic hair dye. If you do, the hair will swell and smoke, appearing to be boiling from the inside out.
Hydrogen Peroxide Developers
hydrogen peroxide developer is an oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidation hairoclor, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop the color molecules and create a change in natural hair color.
, also known as
oxidizing agents
, have a pH between 2.5 and 4.5. Although there are a number of developers on the market, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the one most commonly use in haircolor.
Keep in mind, there are different forms of peroxide. There are clear liquids that make it easy to apply the product from an applicator bottle. There are cream forms that are used to make a thicker creamy consistency, sometimes for bowl and brush application. Some manufacturers provide dedicated developers that are used with their own specific haircolor products.
measures the concentration and strength of hydrogen peroxide. The lower the volume, the less lift achieve; the higher the volume, the greater the lifting action. The majority of permanent haircolor products use 10- 20- 30- or 40-volume peroxide for proper lift and color development. Store peroxide in a cool, dark, dry place.
Lighteners are chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing dissolving and decolorizing the natural hair pigment.
As soon as hydrogen peroxide is mixed into the lightener formula, it begins to release oxygen. This is known as oxidation, a process by which oxygen is released, and it occurs within the cortex of the hair shaft. to achieve a very light, pale blond, it is recommended to use a
double-process application, also known as
two-step coloring,
which is a coloring technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is prelightened before the depositing color is applied.
This service includes using a lightener. These products are designed to process up to ninety minutes on the scalp to achieve desired lift. Once the hair is properly decolorized, the second step is to add soft tone back to the hair, called the toning process. These products called toners, are designed to add tone to decolorized hair. Demipermanent colors may also be used. Usually in the 8 - 10 level range of colors.
Hair lighteners are used to create a light blond shade that is not achievable with permanent haircolor alone, as well as to accomplish the following objectives:
Lighten the hair prior to application of a final color.
Lighten hair to a particular shade.
Brighten and lighten an existing shade.
Lighten only certain parts of the hair.
Lighten dark natural or color-treated levels.
The Decolorizing Process
The hair goes through different stages of color as it lightens. The amount of change depends on the amount of pigment in the hair, the strength of the lightening product and the length of time that the product is processed. During the process of decolorizing, natural hair can go through as many as 10 stages.
Decolorizing the hair's natural melanin pigment allows the colorist to create the exact degree of contributing pigment needed for the final result.
Contributing pigment is the varying degree of warmth exposed during the lightening process. First, the hair is decolorized to the appropriate level. Then the new color is applied to deposit the desired color. The natural pigment than remains in the hair contributes to the artificial color that is added. Lightening the hair to the correct stage is essential to a beautiful, controlled, final haircoloring result.
are traditional semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent haircolor products that are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale and delicate colors. Toners can also be used after dimensional haircolor services to create softer shades of blonde.. Simply rinse lightener, towel dry hair and apply desired shade of toner, takes about 5 minutes.
Not all hair will go through all 10 degrees of decolorization. Each natural hair color starts the decolorization process at a different stage. Remember, the goal is to create the correct degree of contributing pigment as the foundation for the final haircolor.
Hair cannot be safely lifted past the pale yellow stage with lightener. Trying so will result in hair that when wet, feels mushy and will stretch without returning to its original length. When dry, the hair is harsh and brittle. Such hair often results in breakage and will not accept a toner properly. The baby blond (white blond) look can be achieved by lightening to pale yellow and neutralizing the unwanted undertone (contributing pigment) with a toner.
Primary Colors
: It is often difficult to lighten dark hair to a very pale blond without causing extreme damage o the hair. The client should be alerted to this danger before you proceed with the service.
A haircolor consultation is the most critical part of the color service.
The consultation is the first important step in establishing a relationship with your client. This is where your client will communicate what they are looking for in a haircolor service. You must listen carefully, taking in all the information so that you can make an appropriate haircolor recommendation. Allowing sufficient time for the consultation is the single most reliable way to help ensure a client's satisfaction.

See page 642 and 643 for more on consultations, also Chapter 4, Communicating for Success. Also read the
Caution bottom of page 642.
Release Statement
A release statement is used by schools and many salons when providing chemical services.
Its purpose is to explain to clients that there is a risk involved in any chemical service and that if the client's hair is in questionable condition, it may not withstand the requested chemical treatment.
It also asks about prior chemical services that may affect the current color selection and its end result.
To some degree, the release statement is designed to protect the school or salon from responsibililty for accidents or damages. A release statement is required for most malpractice insurance. Take note, however, that a release statement is not a legally binding contract, and will not clear the cosmetologist of responsibility for what happen to the client's hair.
If you are unsure about causing excessive damage to the hair, it is wise to decline to perform the service.
Haircolor Formulation
There are 4 basic questions that must always be asked when formulating a haircolor.
What is the natural leveland doesit include gray hair?
What is the client's desired level and tone?
Are contributing pigments (undertones) to be revealed?
What colors should be mixed to get the desired result?
Refer to the additional Formulation Checklist to cover more details. Page 646
The combination of the shade selected and the volume of hydrogen peroxide determines the deposit and lifting ability of a haircolor. Always remember to formulate with both lift and deposit in mind in order to achieve the proper balance for the desired end result. The volume of hydrogen peroxide mixed with the haircolor product will also influence the lift and deposit.
Mixing Permanent Colors
Your method of mixing permanent colors is determined by the type of application you are using. Permanent color is applied by either the applicator bottle or bowl-and-brush method (always follow manufacturer's directions).
Applicator bottle. Be sure that the applicator bottle is large enough to hold both the color and developer, with enough air space to shake the bottle until the mixture is thoroughly mixed. For 1:1 ratio, 1 ounce of color 1 ounce of developer. For a 1:2 ratio, 1ounce of of color and 2 ounces of developer. Follow manufacturer's instructions.
Brush and bowl.
Use a non-metallic mixing bowl.
Use an applicator brush to mix measured ingredients in bowl until blended.
Patch Test
When working with haircolor, you must determine whether your clients have any allergies or sensitivities to the mixture. To identify an allergy in a client,
the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act requires that a patch test be given 24 to 48 hours prior to each application of an aniline haircolor. A patch test, also known as
predisposition test
, is a test for identifying a possible allergy in a client.
The color used for the patch test must be the same as the color that will be used for the haircolor service.

A negative skin test will show no sign of inflammation and indicates that the color may be safely apped. A positive result will show redness and a slight rash or welt. A client with these symptoms is allergic, and under no circumstances should receive a haircolor service with the haircolor tested.

Aniline derivative haircolors must never be used on the eyelashes or eyebrows. To do so may cause blindness.
Haircolor Application
To ensure successful results when performing haircoloring services, the colorist must follow a prescribed procedure. A clearly defined sysstem makes for the greatest efficiency, and the safest and most satisfactory results. Without such aplan, the work will take longer, results will be uneven, and mistakes may be made.
Preliminary Strand Test
Once you have created a color formula for your client, try it out first on a small strand of hair. This preliminary
strand test
determines how the hair will react to the color formula and how long the formula should be left on the hair. The strand test is performed after the client is prepared for the coloring service.
Temporary Colors
There are many methods of applying a temporary color, depending on the product used. You may apply colored gels, mousses, foams or sprays at your workstation after your client has been shampooed. Always use and apply these color products according to the manufacturer's directions.
Semipermanent Haircolors
Because semipemanent colors do not contain the oxidizers necessary to lift, they only deposit color and do not lighten color. When selecting a semi color, remember taht color applied on top of existing color always creates a deeper color and alters the tone.

The porosity of the hair will determine how well these products saturate the hair. Because they are deposit-only, traditional semipermanent colors can build up on the hair ends with repeated applications. A strand test will help determine the formula and processing time before the service.
Demipermanent Haircolor
Demipermanent haircolor is a great way to introduce clients to a color service and to enhance their natural color in one easy step.

Grey hair presents special challenges when formulating demipermanent haircolor. Because there is no lift, the resulting depth of color when covering gray hair may appear too harsh unless you allow for some brightness and warmth in your formulation. Selecting a shade that is one level lighter that the natural color is recommended, so that the gray hair looks somewhat highlighted against the natural color. This will deliver a more natural-looking result.Hair that has previously received a color service will have a greater degree of porosity, which must also be taken into consideration when formulating and applying a demipermanent haircolor.

Single-Process Permanent Haircolor
Single-process haircoloring
lightens and deposits in a single application
. Examples of single-process coloring are virgin color applications and color retouch applications. A
virgin application
refers to the first time the hair is colored. Prelightening or presoftening is not required with these applications.
Single-Process Color Retouch
As the hair grows, you will need to apply haircolor to the new growth to keep it looking attractive and to avoid a two-toned effect, this is called a retouch.
The procedure provided for applying color to new growth and to refresh faded ends also includes the application of a
, a non-ammonia color that adds shine and tone to the hair. Follow guidelines and preparation steps as a virgin single-process procedure, including a consultation and patch test.
Overlapping can cause breakage and a
line of demarcation
, which is the visible line separating colored hair from new growth.
Double-Process Haircolor
First, let us discuss the process of
hair lightening
, also known as
, which is a chemical process involving the diffusion of the natural hair color pigment or artificial haircolor from the hair.
If the client asks for a dramatically lighter color, the hair has to be prelightened first. Also, to achieve pale or cool colors, it is sometimes more efficient to use a double-process application. By first decolorizing the hair and then using a separate product to deposit the desired tone, you will have more control over the coloring process.
Double-process high-lift coloring, also known as two-step blonding, is a technique to create light-blond hair in two steps. The hair is prelightened first and then toned.
is the first step of double-process haircoloring, used to lift or lighten the naturalpigment before the application of the toner.
Because the lightening action and the deposit of color are independent of each other, a wider range of haircolor is possible.
You may find that the contrivuting pigment of the hair can help you in a double-process color application. By prelightening the hair to the desired color, you can create a perfect foundation for longer-lasting red colors that avoid muddiness and stay true to tone.
Using an applicator brush,stir the lightener unil it tis throughly mixed. A creamy consistency provides the best control during application.
Using Lighteners
Colorists can choose from three forms of lighteners: Oil and cream lighteners are considered
on-the-scalp lighteners
, which are lighteners that can be used directly on the scalp by mixing the lightener with activators. New technology has created powder lighteners that can also be used directly on the scalp. Each type has its unique chemical characteristics and formulation procedures, refer to the manufacturer's directions for best results.
On-the-Scalp Lighteners
Cream, oil and some powder lighteners are used on-the-scalp because they are easy to apply. Oil lighteners are the mildest type, appropriate when only one or two levels of lift are desired. Because they are so mild, they are also used professionally to lighten dark facial and body hair.
Cream lighteners are strong enough for high-lift blonding, but gentle enough to be used on the scalp.
They have the following features and benefits:
Conditioning agents give some protection to the hair and scalp.
Thickeners give more control during application.
Because cream lighteners do not run or drip, overlapping is prevented during retouching services. Cream lighteners may be mixed with activators in the form of dry crystals.
, also known as
boosters, protinators or accelerators,
are powdered persulfate salts added to haircolor to increase its lightening ability
. Activators are used in powdered off-the-scalp hair lighteners. They are also added to hydrogen peroxide to increase its lifting power. The more activators you use, the lighter the hair will be. Up to three activators can be used for on-the-scalp applications and up to four can be used for off-the-scalp applications. Activators increase scalp irritation.
Powdered Off-the-Scalp Lighteners
Off-the-scalp lighteners

also known as quick lighteners

are powdered lighteners that cannot be used directly on the scalp.
Powdered lighteners are strong, fast-acting lighteners in powdered form. Some powdered lighteners are specifically designed for off-the-scalp application. Pay attention to which type of lightener you use. Off-the-scalp lighteners may dry out more quickly than other types, but they do not run or drip. Most powder lighteners expand and spread out as processing continues.
Time Factors
Processing time for lightening is affected by certain factors.
See page 651
Preliminary Strand Test
Perform a preliminary strand test prior to lightening in order to determine the processing time, the condition of the hair ater lightening, and the end result. Watch the strand carefully for its reactio to the mixture, noting any discoloration or breakage. Reconditioning may be required prior to toning. If the color and condition are good, you can proceed with the lightening service. Always record data on client service card for future use.
A patch test must be taken 24 - 48 hours prior to each application of a toner containing aniline derivatives.
Lightener Retouch
New growth
is the part of the hair shaft between the scalp and the hair that has been previously colored.
New growth will become obvious as the hair grows. When performing a retouch, always lighten the new growth first. A cream lightener is generally used for a lightener retouch because it is less irritating to the scalp and its consistency helps prevent overlapping of previously lightened hair. Overlapping can cause damage and severe breakage and lines of demarcation.
Using Toners
Toners are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve pale, delicate colors. No-lift demipermanent haircolors are often used as toners.

The contributing pigment is the color that remains in the hair after lightening. It is essential that you achieve the correct foundation in order to create the right color and degree of porosity required for proper toner development.

As a general rule, the paler the color you are seeking, the lighter the contributing pigment needs to be.
Toner Application
A patch test is required 24 -48 hours before each toner application. Your speed and accuracy are both factors in the application and will determine, to a large extent, whether you get good color results. Always follow manufacturers directions. Toning prelightened hair generally takes less processing time than a regular demi, semi application.
Special Effects Haircoloring
Special effects haircoloring
refers to any technique that involves partial lightening or coloring. Coloring for special effects can be thought of as a pure fashion technique. It is a versatile and exciting haircoloring service.
One way you can create special effects is by strategically placing light and dark colors in the hair.

involves coloring some of the hair strands lighter that the natural color to add a variety of lighter shades and the illusion of depth.
Reverse highlighting
, also known as
is the technique of coloring stands of hair darker than the natural color.
As you begin to expand your knowledge of haircoloring and lightening and to develop your technical ability, you will become more creative.
There are several methods for achieving highlights. The three most frequently used techniques:
Cap technique
Foil technique
Baliage or free-form technique
Cap Technique
The cap technique involves pulling clean, dry strands through a perforated cap with athin plastic or metal hook, and then combing them to remove tangles. The number of strands pulled through determines the amount of hair that will be highlighted or lowlighted. Small numbers of hair pulled through will give a subtle look. A more noticeable effect is achieved by pulling more hairs through and pulling a lot of hairs through will give a very dramatic effect.
Foil Technique
foil technique
involves coloring selected strands of hair by slicing or weaving out sections, placing them on foil or plastic wrap, applying lightener or permanent haircolor, and then sealing them in the foil or plastic wrap for processing. You can also apply permanent haircolor to the strands to create softer, more natural-looking highlights.
Placing foil in the hair is an art. It takes practice and discipline. To make it easier, start by working to create clean section blocks on the head. Once you have perfected this, you will fully understand the difference between a slice parting and a weave parting.
involves taking a narrow, 1/8-inch section of hair by making a straight part at the scalp,positioning the hair over the foil, and applying lightener or color. In
selected strands are picked up from a narrow section of hair with a zigzag motion of the comb, and lightener is applied only to these strands.
There are many patterns in which foil can be placed in the hair. There are face-frame, half-head, three-quarter head and full-head foiling patterns that produce different highlights in different portions of the head.
Baliage Technique
(balyage), also known as
free form technique,
involves the painting of a lightener
(usually powdered off-the-scalp lightener)
directly onto clean styled hair
. The lightener is applied with a brush or a tail comb from scalp to ends around the head. The effects are extremely subtle and are used to draw attention to the surface of the hair.
Toning Highlighted and Dimensionally Colored Hair
When the hair is decolorized to the desired level during a highlighting service, the use of a toner may or may not be necessary, depending on the tone/color you are trying to achieve.

When using a toner on highlighted hair, it is important to consider not only the varying degrees of porosity, but also the difference in pigmentation from strand to strand that was created by the lightening process.

To avoid affecting the untreated hair, choose one of the following option:
A nonoxidative toner
Semipermanent color
A demipermanent color
Highlighting Shampoo
Highlighting shampoo colors are prepared by combining permanent haircolor, hydrogen peroxide and shampoo. They are used when a slight change in hair shade is desired, or when the client's hair process very rapidly. This process highlights the hair's natural color in a single application. No patch test is needed, follow manufacturer's directions.
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