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Multiple Intelligences

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Laura Mickey

on 26 November 2014

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Transcript of Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences
According to Merriam Webster Online Dictionary (2014), intelligence is defined as:

(1) the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : reason; also : the skilled use of reason
(2) : the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests)

What Multiple Intelligence am I?
CC Image courtesy of pabeaufait on Flickr.
Gardner's Definitions
Gardner defined intelligence in 1983 as "the ability to solve problems or to create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings. (Gardner, 33)
To take this quiz, follow this link!

While there is no official assessment of multiple intelligences, there are several unofficial "quizzes" available online. This graph is an example of what one website will give you when you take their quiz.
Abbeduto, L., & Symons, F. (2014). Can Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Transform Educational Practice? In Taking sides: Clashing views in educational psychology (Seventh ed., pp. 110-125). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Concept to Classroom: Tapping into multiple intelligences - Explanation. (2004, January 1). Retrieved November 16, 2014, from http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index_sub1.html
Denig, S. (2004). Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles: Two Complementary Dimensions. Teachers College Record, 106(1), 96-111. Retrieved from http://nitromart.co.uk/jem/docs/tt/multiple intelligences article.pdf
Dunn, R. & Dunn, K. (1999). The complete guide to learning styles inservice system. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Intelligence [Def. 1&2]. (2014). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved November 16, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/intelligence
Lane, C. (2008). Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved November 18, 2014, from http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
Massachusetts School of Law (2008, July 23) IQ, or Multiple Intelligence? [video file] Retrieved from
The Components of MI - Multiple Intelligences Oasis. (2014). Retrieved November 19, 2014, from http://multipleintelligencesoasis.org/about/the-components-of-mi/
Strauss, V. (2013, October 16). Howard Gardner: "Multiple intelligences' are not 'learning styles' Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/10/16/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-are-not-learning-styles/
He redefined intelligence in 1999 as "a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture." (Gardner, 34)
Traditional View
short answer IQ tests available
Born with a 'fixed' amount
IQ stays the same throughout lifetime
tests ability of language and logic
teachers teach same material to everyone
teachers teach subjects
Comparing Views of Intelligence
Multiple Intelligence View
no official assessment
People have a unique combination of all of the intelligences
People can improve on their intelligences
MI reflects different ways of interacting with the world
teachers will teach based on individuals strengths and weaknesses
Teachers use strategies focus on students
(Concept to Classroom, 2004)
"think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs." (Lane, 2008)
So, how are Multiple Intelligences used in the classroom?
"use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects." (Lane, 2008)
• Clapping
• Snap fingers
• Going on field trips
• Musical chairs
• Physical Education activities
• Movement correlated to segmentation or spelling
• Dancing

• Cooperative groups
• Musical instruments
• Physical Education activities
• Drama/plays
"Using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture."(Lane, 2008)
• Story telling
• Re-telling stories
• Coral reading
• Guided reading groups
• Fluency bag
• Read aloud
• Making books
• Writing journals
• Process writing
• Presenting
• Debating
• Speech club
• Dramatizing
• Researching
• Journal writing
• Process writing
"show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia." (Lane, 2008)
• Humming
• Playing background music
• Rhyming
• Rapping
• Music class
• Singing
• Playing instruments
• Singing
• Musicals
"understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail." (Lane, 2008)
• Sharing
• Class parties
• Working groups
• Leadership teams
• Peer teaching
• Buddy rooms
• Brainstorming
• Peer editing
• Clubs
• Group work
• Student Council
• Tutoring
• Independent study
• Personal goal setting
• Personal choice in projects
• Individual projects
• Independent reading
• Independent study
• Personal goal setting
• Personal choice in projects
• Individual projects
• Independent reading
"understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners." (Lane, 2008)
"reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details." (Lane, 2008)
Logical -Mathematical
• Sequencing
• Predicting
• Critical thinking
• Solving puzzles
• Patterning
• Using math manipulatives
• Collecting data
• Measuring
• Learning the scientific model
• Geometry
• Algebra
• Coding/decoding
• Trigonometry
• Predicting
"The ability to make consequential distinctions in the world of nature as, for example, between one plant and another, or one cloud formation and another (e.g. taxonomist). (Sometimes called nature intelligence.)" ("The Components of MI", 2014)
collecting objects from the world
categorizing objects
nature hikes
caring for pets
using magnifiers to study nature
collecting data
categorizing and classifying objects and information
visiting museums, zoos botanical gardens, and natural observatories
doing experiments in nature
What do you think of when you think of intelligence?
Can Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Transform Educational Practice?
• Visualize
• Use puzzles
• Build with blocks
• Play with play dough
• Drawing pictures to express their feeling and thoughts
• Mapping stories
• Using graphic organizers
• Graphs and charts

• Make dioramas
• Build sculptures
• Working with clay
• Make models
• Drama/play
• Science experiments
• Mapping stories
• Using graphic organizers
• Graphs and charts
Criticisms to the Multiple Intelligence Theory
Mi theory should not be taught without consideration for the alternative evidence based cognition models or the lack of empirical evidence to back up mi.

1. There is a lack of empirical evidence, therefore no means to validate experiments to the theory

2. Research evidence
exist that contradicts Gardner’s theories.

ex:General Intelligence or G factor theory
Multiple Information Processing System theory
Adapted Cognition Theory
(Abbeduto & Symons, 2014)
Your general intelligence or g factor is your ability to reason, problem solve, decide, learn & act successfully in the pursuit of your valued goals.

The G factor theory states that a unitary general intelligence exists that is identified by an I.Q. test factor g that has two forms (Geake and Hansen 2005) (Johnson, Bouchard, 2005) (Johnson, Bouchard, Krueger, McGue, & Gottesman, 2004) (McRorie & Cooper, 2004); a fluid intelligence that reflects mental ability independent of culture, and a crystallized intelligence that reflects both fluid intelligence and learning.

Researched based evidence supports general intelligence factors.

-General intelligence can predict intellectual performance across different sets of measures.

-G is likely to be working memory or a function of the frontal lobe.

-G reflects overall brain efficiency or the close interconnection of a set of mental skills or working memory.

-The measure of g predicted nearly all the variance in a measure of working memory.

(Gardner 1983) Multiple intelligence theory goes against this paradigm.
(Abbeduto & Symons, 2014)
Research findings for Multiple Information Processing Systems:
Research findings for Adapted Cognition Theory:
Research findings for Multiple Information Processing Systems:

There are two large scale information processing pathways or streams in the brain.

One pathway analyzes what we hear and what we see to answer that question “What is it?”

The other pathway analyzes what we hear and see and feel to answer the question “Where is it?”

Studies show that these pathways are not functionally isolated from one another. (Born and Bradley, 2005; Squire, Craig & Clark 2005)

Many other cognitive skills
brain processing pathways. There is evidence for shared and overlapping pathways for language and music (Koelsch et al., 2004)

Gardner(1999) states that Mi theory demands that linguistic processing occurs
via a
different set
of neural mechanisms than does spatial or interpersonal processing (page 99)
(Abbeduto & Symons, 2014)
Research findings for the General Intelligence or G factor theory:
There is evidence to show the existence of innate cognitive modules that generate specific adaptive behavior patterns. (Cosmides & Tooby, 1992, Cummins, 2002, Gallistel, 1998, Hauser & Spelke, 2004)

There may be 100 specific domain-specific cognition modules wherein each evolved to solve a different environmental computational problem.

Evidence supports the existence of a range of adapted cognition modules including;
One for detecting social cheating in many species, including bacteria, insects, birds as well as humans. (Cummins 2002; Velicer 2005)
One for knowledge of number, children’s number knowledge is separate from language development and also exists in primates. (Gelman & Gallistel 2005; Xu, Spelke, & Goddard 2005) (Gelman & Butterworth 2005)
One for the mental imitation of others through automatic firing of mirror neurons that allows us to understand the emotional state of those around us and learn complex behavior from others (Fadiga, Craighero, & Oliver 2005; Mottonen Jarvelainen, Sams & Hart, 2005)
A proposed adapted module for mirror neuron system to mimic the behavior of others (Rizzolatte & Craighero 2004)

These adaptive cognition modules have evolve to aid us in solving
specific recurrent problems in our environment.
Gardner claimed “each intelligence evolved to deal with certain kinds of contents in a predictable world”, rather than solving specific environmental problems. (Abbeduto & Symons, 2014)
Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles are not the same thing!
Multiple Intelligences
"A bio psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture." (Gardner, 1999, pp.33-34)

Howard Gardner MI=
8 independent intelligences in the brain. Each intelligence processes different information.

Multiple Intelligences addresses what is taught (the product). (Deng, 2004)
Learning Style
"The way in which each person begins to concentrate on, process, internalize, and remember new and difficult academic content." (Dunn, 1993, 1999)

Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model=
21 unique elements of stimulus that affects our learning.

Learning Styles addresses how it is taught (the process). (Deng, 2004)
In 1983, Howard Gardner proposed 7 separate human intelligences; linguistic, logical-mathematical , musical intelligenc, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal . He later went on to add an 8th intelligence, naturalist. (Gardner, 1999).

Proponents of Gardner's theory suggest that these intelligences guides teachers into planning lessons and assessments that are aligned with the intelligences of their students.

Opponents of the theory point to a lack of empirical evidence and also bring up conflicting evidence for a general intelligence.
Can Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Transform Educational Practice?
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences can be a great reference to keep in mind as we seek to understand and reach all of our students. It is still relatively new as a theory and without the empirical evidence to support this theory, we don't think that it is ready to transform educational practices. In combination with the use of learning styles, it does have the possibility to be a powerful tool in any classroom.
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