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Neuroscience Revolution

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Evie Elsbree

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Neuroscience Revolution

Neuroscience Revolution What is Neuroscience? History Of Neuroscience - born in Frankfurt-au-main in Germany -Born in Windsor, Ontario Evie, Kyle, Sophia Neuroscience is the study of the brain and the nervous system Citations First recorded facts about the brain: Neurons are nerve cells–they transmit info from your brain to the rest of your body in both chemical and electrical forms 4000- 1700 BCE - Poppy seed's euphoric effect recorded in Sumerian records - Egyptians consider the brain to be one of the least important organs - In mummies, brains are thrown away - Trepanation is a common surgical procedure 1700- 335 BCE - Early Greeks start to recognize brain to be source of human sensation - Greek Philosopher Plato introduces idea that brain is the source of mental processes -Aristotle believes in ancient theory that heart is the superior organ - Andreas Vesalius publishes first anatomy with detailed drawings of the brain 335 BCE- 1800 - Thomas Willis publishes the first brain atlas that includes some brain functions -Franz Mesmer introduces 'animal magnetism' (hypnosis) 1800- 1900 - Phineas Gage - Phineas Gage- front of his brain peirced by iron rod. Lead us to realize that morals and behavior are based in our brain (1848) - Luigi Galvani Otto Leowi (1873-1961) Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) David Hunter Hubel (1926) Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) -neuropsychologist
-researched animal behavior in relationship to brain injuries and the concepts of mass action and equipotentiality
-mass action=the cerebral cortex acts as a whole, memory is not centralized to one location
-equipotentiality=if an area of the brain that has a specific job is removed or damaged, other areas of the brain will take over that responsibility Karl Lashley (1890-1958) http://hplusmagazine.com/2012/07/20/how-the-brain-works/ http://britishsciencefestival.wordpress.com/2012/08/21/it-wasnt-me-it-was-my-neurons/ http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2006/12/15/your-friday-dose-of-woo-i-need-this-like/ http://www.dopotopa.com/lang1/plato_timaeus_fragment.html Conflicting evidence: Key Scientific Questions: -Why is the brain important? -What is the brain's job? -What is the most effective way to study the brain? Revolutionaries: -Wilder Penfield, Roger Sperry, Karl Lashley, Otto Leowi,
Ramon y Cajal, David Hunter Hubel, Phineas Gage Serendipity: -Phineas Gage Paradigm Shift: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron Roger Sperry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phineas_Gage http://derekleif.blogspot.com/2010/03/phineas-gage-or-stupid-brain-damaged.html - -Paul Broca, French neurosurgeon, and Carl Wernicke, German neurologist, discover the 2 main language centers in the brain - Santiago Ramon y Cajal -Luigi Galvani -- one of the first
looks into bioelectricity. Discovered that
dead frogs' legs twitch when struck by a scalpel with a charge. Realized the elec-
tric nature of the nervous system http://www.endalldisease.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/WilderPenfield-AtBlackboard-ByMNI.jpg
-8 years-- Mother took him & older brother and sister--moved to Hudson, Wisconsin to live with her parents Experiment reconducted by Alessandro
Volta, who realized it was just the
2 different metals -At Oxford - decided to enter medical field & recieved M.D after 2 years -developed “neuron theory” that Golgi, his associate, never believed
-proven by showing that the axons (fibers of nerve cells) end in gray matter, not connected to anything -Fatalities in teberculosis/pneumonia. Decides research in medical science instead -when Cajal began scientific work, there were two prominent theories about the brain
1. reticular theory = nervous system is interconnected
2. neuron theory = while neurons communicate, they are seperate and never connect -Discovered that stimulating any part of the cereberal cortex causes responses -1905-became associate professor at the University of Marburg-an-der-lahn. Metabolism -worked in Starling's labratory in London, met Henry Dale -published 100+ articles on the nervous system, the brain, the spinal cord, and various muscles
-some were written under the pseudonym of "Dr.Bacteria"
-wrote and illustrated "Structure of the Nervous System of Man and Other Vertebrates" in 1904 which has been called the most important work in neurobiology -Widely known for map of the brain (often portrayed as a cartoon caracter) -Cajal received the Rubio Prize, the Moscow Prize, the Helmholtz Gold Medal from the Royal Academy of Berlin, and the Nobel prize in medicine with Camillo Golgi. -ID adrenaline as a nerv.syst. transmitter & noradrenaline as most important neurotransmitter -NP for Physiology or Medicine in 1936 for chemical transmission of nerve impulses -Provided the first proof that chemicals were involved in transmission of impulses from nerve cell--nerve cell and from neuron -- organ -developed gold and silver stains to study different parts of nervous tissue in the brain
-Cajal improved and added onto Golgi's research of stains and nervous tissue
-1913, devised a stain used to study the nervous tissue of embryos and people with brain tumors -Cajal’s father, an anatomy professor, wanted his son to follow in his footsteps
-preliminary degree in 1873 and a M.D. in 1879
-army surgeon in Cuba
-took over the University of Zaragoza’s anatomy department
-1920 King Alfonso XIII created the Cajal Institute in Madrid -neurobiologist that grew up in Spain -stim. nerves in heart of frog and slowed RoC. Fluid around frog transferred to other frog's dish. Unstimulated frog's RoC slows
- surgical intern at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. -Cajal's work on disease and injuries that affect the nervous system was collected in the "Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System". -returned to Oxford for graduate school. http://acccn.net/Bio/book/Bio50/LecNotes/lecnot00c.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Galvani -Returned to the United States in 1921 -IDs fluid as acetylcholine, ion that acts as a neurotransmitter -grad. from German University in 1896, taught in European universities -1928-Joins the Medical Faculty of McGill University.
-Became first neurosurgeon at multiple hospitals -2 years after NP, Austria invaded. Otto jailed. Uses NP money to get out http://www.nndb.com/people/226/000131830/ - -1934 receives grant from the Rockefeller Foundation for 1.2 Million -
starts the Montreal Institute of Neurology. -worked mainly with rats, trying to find engrams in their brains
engram= the way that memory traces are stored in the brain as responses to outside stimulants "Rest results in rust" - Wilder Penfield - in experiments, rats were forced to run through mazes
-before their second time through, brain tissue was removed
-Lashley found that although their overall memory was degraded, it did not matter where the tissue was removed from in their brains
-proved his mass action theory that memory is not consolidated in one area -Otto Leowi -Karl Lashley . -Wilder Penfield -Roger Sperry -David H Hubel 1900-1990 (1913-1994) -we now know that engrams of memory are not evenly distributed
-his conclusions were incorrect because the way that he removed tissue was not precise -Medical School at McGill, summers at Montreal Neurological Institute. Fascinated by nervous system -
-Attended Oberlin College on 4 year Scholarship.
-1935 recieved his AB in english
-1937 recieved MA in Psychology
-1941 he recieved his Ph.D. at Chicago
-Spent a year doing postdoctoral reserch as a National
Reserch Council Fellow at Harvard Univercity. 1914 to 1917-John Watson and Lashley worked together on vertebrate behavior -Studied clinical neurophysiology w/ Herbert Jasper - To US for year of neurology at Johns Hopkins (dual citizenship) -drafted into army as a doctor age 29. Assigned to the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Neuropsychiatry Division -Widley known for his studies that demonstrate how the left side of the brain is domonant in analytical tasks and the right side of the brain is domonant for spatial tasks and music. -Co-awarded the Nobel Prize in 1981 1920- became an assistant professor of psychology
1924-earned a professorship
1942 to 1955-managed the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology
1938- inducted into American Philosophical Society, which since 1957 has given the Karl Lashley Award -1958- moved to Wilmer institute. W/ Torsten Weisel. Investigated brain function & nerve pulses b/w retina (eyes) and brain. Proved that specific nerve cells are responsible for specific types of visual comprehension -At age 11 Sperry's Father died - Torsten, Sperry, and Hubel jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1981 -Wrote 4 books:
The Visual Cortex of the Brain
The Brain
Eye, Brain, and Vision
Brain and Visual Perception: The Story of a 25-year Collaboration -1946 took a position as Assistant Professor at the Univercity of Chiago in the schools anatomy department. - Used tiny electrodes to track electrical discharges in nerve fibers & brain cells when the eye responds to light and information -1954 transfered to the California Institute of Technology. -While at Caltech, Sperry discovered that the corpus callosum is the brains way of communicating between the right side of the brain and the left side. Decade of The Brain -Recent revolution (all discoveries in past 50 yrs)
-Neuroimaging= using various imaging techniques to research the function and structure of the brain
-two main categories:
1. functional neuroimaging- diagnosing on a smaller scale, used to research psychology
2. structural neuroimaging- diagnosing on a larger scale
- many new types of scans, like CAT, PET, MRI, and fMRI. neuroethics: questions about neuroimaging techniques and if they are ethically, legally, and socially acceptable
concerns:
-privacy (reading minds with an fMRI scan)
-accountability (legal responsibility for evidence found in brain scans)
-lie detection (new technique with fMRI scanning, 88% accurate in determining the truth) 1990 to the end of 1999 1990-2000 -functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)= most influential technique since 1990s
-uses changes in blood flow to detect brain activity. - incorporates BOLD scan (this contrasts the energy that blood cells use with the change in blood flow)
-color codes area being studied, shows the magnetic resonance changes between oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood
- now is routine for brain mapping
-used to study many common neurological, psychiatric, and developmenal disorders
-social neuroscience and neuroeconomics are new, specific fields within neuroscience that have spun off of research done with fMRI scans The biggest discovery -- when you are born you do not have all of the brain cells that you will have in your entire lifetime. -Aristotle v Plato, Luigi Galvani's experiment reconducted by Volt MRI http://brain-powerd.brainfunctionz.com/brain-scan-mri/ http://neuroscientificallychallenged.blogspot.com/2008/01/neuroimaging-revolution.html fMRI Neuroimaging 1915 2012 (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1918 1927 1979 1980 1990 2003 Egas Moniz: cerebral angiography (precise view of blood vessels in the brain) Nobel Prize-Allan Cormack and Godfrey Hounsfield for CAT scan, more detailed imagery of the brain Nobel Prize: Peter Mansfield and Paul Lauterbur for MRI scan, lets doctors view structures of the body in more detail SPECT & PET scans become widespread
MRI procedure is refined fMRI scans become most widely used technique in brain imaging Walter Dandy: pneumoencephalography (a process to view the brain clearly in an image by draining cerebral fluid) -very painful and invasive procedure, -no longer used in medical practice -replaced by MRI scans. Before this discovery, scientists had argued that the adult brain did not produce any new brain cells. In 1997, Dr. Elizabeth Gould showed neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampuses of monkeys. -In 1998 Dr. Gage showed that brain cells were also produced in the hippocampuses of mice. -production of brain cells was discovered in humans
-Dr. Gage's colleges in Sweden found a substacle in 5 patients' brains hippocampuses after they died. -July 25, 1989 President Bush signed document calling on the United States to observe the Decade of the Brain. -"father of neuroscience" -Only way to get meaningful responses (memory: including sound, movement, color) is to stimulate the temporal lobes. -Attended Princeton University & Oxford . http://s3.hubimg.com/u/4653314_f260.jpg . http://www.endalldisease.com/wilder-penfield-brain-stimulation-discovery/ http://saintleoinkblot.com/2012/06/07/today-in-the-history-of-psychology-67/ Decade Of The Brain
- -Ancient era to 1700s (brain is unimportant to brain is crucial) Normal Science: -Neuroimaging -With new neuroimaging techniques, we are able to go back to normal science and less studies about broad ideas of the brain are being conducted. We are now able to focus more on the specifics of the brain and relate it more and more to medicine
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