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Centrifugal Pump

ME Lab 3 report

nicko garcia

on 16 January 2013

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Transcript of Centrifugal Pump

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP ME152L/A1 Garcia, John Nicko Noel V. Contents Objectives: HISTORY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP 1687: French-born inventor Denis Papin develops the first true centrifugal pump, one with straight vanes used for local drainage. 1851: John Gwynne files his first centrifugal pump patent. His early pumps were used primarily for land drainage, and many can still be seen today in pump house museums. They were usually powered by Gwynnes' steam engines. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John Appold To familiarize ourselves with the basic characteristic and operation of a centrifugal pump.
To familiarize the parts of a centrifugal pump
Determine the factors needed to analyze the performance of a centrifugal pump Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device - an impeller. The most common type is the volute pump. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump. Parts of the centrifugal pump A centrifugal pump has two main components:

I. A rotating component comprised of an impeller and a shaft

II. A stationary component comprised of a casing, casing cover, and bearings. Conversion of Kinetic Energy to Pressure Energy
The key idea is that the energy created by the centrifugal force is kinetic energy. The amount of energy given to the liquid is proportional to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, then the higher will be the velocity of the liquid at the vane tip and the greater the energy imparted to the liquid CENTRIFUGAL PUMP FORMULAS FORMULAS Determination of Pump Capacity
The capacity is determined by computing the volume of water collected in the discharge tank.
VH2O = A x H
Where: A = cross section area of the water tank
H = height or depth of water FORMULAS Formulas Determination of Total Dynamic Head
TDH= Hd - Hs
where: Hd = dynamic discharge head
Hs = dynamic suction head
From the inside diameter of the pipe, velocity of water can be computed.

Power and Efficiency Brake Horse Power (BHP)
The work performed by a pump is a function of the total head and the weight of the liquid pumped in a given time period.
Pump input or brake horsepower (BHP) is the actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft. Pump output or hydraulic or water horsepower (WHP) is the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump. These two terms are defined by the following formulas.
Determination of Water Power, Brake Power and Power input.
WP = Q x y x TDH x S.G.
PI = √3^1/3 EIcos (teta)
BPm = nm x Pi
BPp = nt x BPm = nt x nm x Pi
Power and Efficency Power and Efficiency Determination of Pump and Overall Efficiency

np=WP/BP x 100%
no=WP/IP x 100%

Common Uses: water
petrochemical pumping Advantages: Ability to maintain a uniform flow (constant flow)
Small floor-space requirement
Low initial cost
It can handle fluids with solid without difficulty due to large liquid passage.
As a high-speed machine, centrifugal pump can handle large volume at low head.
Foundation is lighter
Simplicity (compact)
Application of motor drive
Disadvantages Since it is a high-speed machine, it is difficult to operate at very low speed.
Lower efficiency than that of a piston pump
Not suitable for high head requirements at low flow rates
It must be primed before it can delivered liquid
Difficult of regulating with wide fluctuations on loads
Possibility of overloading motor owing to certain load characteristics.
Further Understanding Objectives
Historical Background
Definition of Centrifugal pump
Parts of Centrifugal Pump
How it works
Factors needed
Advantages and Disadvantages of a centrifugal pump End
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