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Period 8 Thomas Civil War
Transcript of Period 8 Thomas Civil War
The Constitution included the Missouri Compromise which counted
slaves as 3/5 of person. This would give the Southern states more power
in the House of Representatives. The Constitution also allowed slave trade to continue until 1808
but it didn't go according to the plan it lasted until December of
The Constituition also declared that the U.S couldn't make an Amendment to ban slavery until. 1860 The 1860 election was the presidential election that made the setting of the Civil War. It brought Abraham and the republican party to power without the support of the southern states. Abraham Lincoln was voted president this year While on his campagin Lincoln traveled to the south and spreaded his views of the Union and what would happen This election was so important because it was the start of the end with the elimination of slavery. Lincoln was against slavery and without him there still might of been slavery today SIX CLOSE UP TOPICS LINCOLN IN THE WAR 1858
-LINCOLN RAN FOR SENATE -LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES show how
he is morally opposed to slavery HOUSE DIVIDED SPEECH - Lincoln states that "house divided cannot stand" - The U.S. must become all slavery or all free LINCOLN IN THE WAR CONTINUED -Lincoln wins, but only receives 40% of votes -Most Southern states do not even have Lincoln on ballot/ There is anger in the south as Lincoln is not a "legit" President - Lincoln enters office and promises not to change slavery in the South (He wants to keep the country together) -Although, there was no compromise on expansion - The South secedes from the Union and then the war begins 1862 -The nation is at war and Lincoln has two goals 1. To end the war sooner 2. Start ending slavery, so the "divided house" no longer exists (which was the only way to succeed in lasting peace RECONSTRUCTION (1865-1877) - It was immediately following the war - The goal of Reconstruction was to rebuild the South and bring back the states into the USA - Also it was intended to help Freedman become part of society and use their citizenship RECONSTRUCTION: PHASE ONE - The 13th Amendment banned slavery
- President Johnson wanted states to rejoin A.S.A.P. - They had low standards and did not care if blacks were mistreated - Freedman's Bureau - Jobs, an education, and representation -Black Codes - When states rejoined, many white southerners took power and passed laws denying rights to blacks - Established to help former slaves use citizenship -Work, curfews, no right to defend themselves, ect. RECONSTRUCTION: PHASE TWO - Civil Rights Act 1866 - Stopped Black Codes -14th Amendment (Citizenship to all persons) - Cannot "deny to any person, equal protection of the law." - Military Reconstruction Act - US Troops sent to enforce rights of blacks -Johnson Impeached - Partly for trying to stop Freedman's Bureau/ Reconstruction - Sharecropping - Blacks were forced into unfair contracts (couldn't read), essentially made them "legal" slaves until they could pay debt (almost impossible) RECONSTRUCTION: PHASE 3 RECONSTRUCTION: PHASE 4 - 15th Amendment (Right to vote for blacks - New state constitutions made to protect rights - African- Americans rep. in US Government - Blacks in office - Scalawags: Southern whites supported black rights - Carpet- Baggers: Northerners who moved south to help blacks - Enforcement Acts - Rise of Ku Klux Klan - Used fear to prevent blacks from voting, or using citizenship - Amnesty Act - Allowed rebels to vote and hold office - Denied black rights - Jim Crow Laws - Replaced Black Codes and started segregation - Compromise of 1877 - End Reconstruction - No more troops/ blacks lose nearly all rights in south 1860 South Carolina Seccession 1862 Antietam 1862 Emancipation Proclamation Civil War Amendments (13th) Appomattox 1865 Civil War Amendments (14th) 1868 Civil War Amendments (15th) 1870 Compromise of 1877 South Carolina took ini the "Declaration of the Immediate Causes" which induced and justified the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union on December 24, 1860 That Declaration explained how the states' rights in the North were apposing to the Fugitive Slave Act, which ment that the Northern states were not completing their duty under the Constitution The Antietam campaign was started when general Lee led 55,000 soldiers fthrough the Shenandoah Valley with an objective to bring aid to his army in Virginia and and to disrupt the Northerners morals in time for the elections in November A week later general Lee swiftly moved his men to SHarpsburg, Marylan where the Battle of Antietam took place On september 17, there were over 22,000 deaths. Lee's campaign failed to finish its job when he was outnumbered by McClellan's army. President Abraham Lincoln used this victory to justify the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation. That stopped the threat of the European support for the Confederay. The Emancipation Proclamation was made of two orders that president Lincoln issued 1. The first issued on september 22, stated the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America. 2. The second issued on January 1, consisted of the ten specific states where this would apply The Emancipation Proclamation didn't have a large first impact on the slaves but an estimate of 20,000 slaves were freed immediatly by the Emancipation Proclamation. Approximately 4 million slaves were freed by July of 1865 The thirteenth Amendment abolishes the practice and continuation of slavery. It also stops "involuntary servitude" with the exception of a punishment for a chrime. It was applied to the U.S on December 6th and was declared by Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 18th The thirteenth amendment states:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for cime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
The second part states: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. The Appomattox Campaign was a series of battles fought March 29-April 9. These wars resulted in the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginai and was the effective end of the American Civil war During these five wars there was an estimate of 6,266 both killed and wounded, 19,132 captured, and surrrendering at Appomattox Court house were 22,349 infantry. The Fourteenth Amendment provides slaves to be included and possess Constitutional rights The U.S. adopted this Amendment as on of the Reconstruction Amendments on July 9 This Amendment defines citizenship and protects a person's civil and political rights from being abridged or denied by any state. This Amendment states: 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits the government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizens "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" This Amendment was ratified on February 3 This Amendment is also one of the Reconstruction Amendments. This Amendment states: 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. The Compromise of 1877 was an unwritten deal that settled the dispute of the U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional Reconstruction An action of this was that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden as long as Hayes would remove the federal trrops that were helping South Carolina, Florida, and Louisana. The compromise stated that Southern Democrats would allow Hayes as President, but only if the Republicans followed these rules:
1.The removal of all Federal troops from the former Confederate States. (Troops only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.)
2. The appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' cabinet. (David M. Key of Tennessee became Postmaster General.) Hayes had already promised this.
3. The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South (this had been part of the "Scott Plan," proposed by Thomas A. Scott, which initiated the process that led to the final compromise).
4. Legislation to help industrialize the South.
Dred Scott Decision:
John Wilkes Booth:
Free-Soil Party: North Vs. South