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Film Studies - Montage Effect

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by

Jan Au

on 8 February 2013

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Transcript of Film Studies - Montage Effect

Montage
(Kuleshov Effect) What is the Montage Effect? Technique in which series of short shots/images are edited together to form sequence to condense space, time, and information
Created by Soviet Russian film director, Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s in Soviet Union
Direct translation of 'montage' is 'assembly'
Filmmakers 'assemble' various shots together to form a montage Montage Effect: Editing Uses close-ups, relatively frequent cuts, dissolves, fades, jump-cuts
1930s to 1950s: combined short shots with special optical effects - fades, dissolves, split screens, double/triple exposures Common Montage Sequences: Early Examples Newspaper: multiple shots of newspapers being printed, headlines zooming onto screen

Railroad: engines heading towards camera, close-ups of engine wheels moving across screen, long trains racing past camera as destination signs zoom into screen Railroad Montage Sequence Common Montage Sequences - Modern Example Sports training:
Potential athlete fails to train well
Solution is serious, intensive training regimen. Potential athlete is shown engaging in physical training in series of short cuts Kuleshov Effect First demonstrated by Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov in 1910s to 1920s
Shows cuts of a person's expression in between other different shots Kuleshov Effect Uses the idea that two unrelated shots put together create a third meaning
Audience believes that person's expression changes in each shot, reacting to various shots (eg. man seemed to look hungry after 'looking' at plate of food) Kuleshov Effect Kuleshov created this effect to demonstrate importance & effectiveness of film editing
Audience projected their own emotions and reactions onto actor's expression
Audience's reality is a construction - changeable and subjective from person to person Quiz Activity 6. Which statement is NOT true about the Kuleshov Effect?

A) It was first demonstrated by a Russian filmmaker
B) It was used to show the importance of film editing
C) It was first demonstrated in the 1910s to 1920s
D) It is a technique that uses several different clips of a person's expression in one montage Multiple Choice Quiz Activity 1. The montage film theory originated in __________________ (country) 2. The direct translation of 'montage' is ______________. 3. The montage method that focuses on the emotional meaning of shots is called the _____________ method. 4. The Kuleshov Effect was first demonstrated by ____________________. 7. The montage effect was a technique used to reduce...

A) space, cost, time
B) space, time, information
C) memory space, time, information
D) space only 8. Which of the following is true about the metric method?

A) It follows a specific number of frames within the
length of a montage
B) It elicits complex emotions among the audience
C) It focuses on visual continuity
D) It is used to create an intellectual meaning 5. The sports training example of a montage usually features a ___________ athlete engaging in physical training. When two or more images/shots are edited together, they form a third meaning
Can be unrelated
Whole is greater than sum of individual parts
Demonstrates juxtaposition Montage Effect: Purpose Montage Effect "Montage is an idea that arises from the collision of independent thoughts"
Eisenstein stated the similarity between montages and poetry
Both create an image or idea in your mind
Both can be used to evoke certain emotions in audience/readers 1. Metric: editing follows a specific number of frames
(based on time, length of montage)
Used to elicit most basic reactions in audience

2. Rhythmic: cutting based on continuity - visual
continuity from shot to shot Montage Effect: Methods 3. Tonal: focuses on emotional meaning of shots, elicits
more complex emotions from audience
not only focused on temporal length/rhythm

4. Overtonal: accumulation of metric, rhythmic, and
tonal montage to create an even more abstract
effect

5. Intellectual: combines shots to create intellectual
meaning
explains concepts, metaphors, etc. Montage Effect: Methods Kuleshov Effect However, it is actually the same clip of the person being played each time
Makes it seem as if actor is somehow projecting his feelings without showing emotion - makes him seem like a great actor
Audience admires 'subtlety' of actor
Kuleshov called his actors 'models', which indicates their insignificance Kuleshov Effect This technique is effective because...
When we are not shown an explicit emotion, we infer it on our own
We attempt to infer emotions of actor by making ourselves 'experience' the situation and feel the emotions
Generates strong reaction Sources "Montage Theory: Eisenstein, Vertov, & Hitchcock 1: Eisenstein & Montage." Faculty. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://faculty.cua.edu/johnsong/hitchcock/pages/montage/montage-1.html>."Montage Theory." Montage Theorie and Editing. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2013. <http://www.main-vision.com/richard/montage.shtml>."Soviet Montage Theory." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 05 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_montage_theory>."Kuleshov Effect." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 01 Jan. 2013. Web. 05 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuleshov_Effect>."Gadgets Open in Separate Window." The Media from Pop Culture Russia! Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2013. <http://www.credoreference.com/entry/abcrusspe/the_media>."The Kuleshov Effect." The Kuleshov Effect. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://kubrickfilms.tripod.com/id21.html>."Kuleshov Effect." TV Tropes. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/KuleshovEffect>."Kuleshov Effect." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/324601/Kuleshov-effect>."Emotional Cinema: Kuleshov Effect." Emotional Cinema: Kuleshov Effect. N.p., 12 Sept. 2007. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://emotionalcinema.blogspot.hk/2007/09/kuleshov-effect.html>."Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein." Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.carleton.edu/curricular/MEDA/classes/media110/Severson/eisenste.htm>. "SERGEI EISENSTEIN: The Art & Science of Cinema." Russian Archives. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.russianarchives.com/gallery/old/eisen.html>."Lev Kuleshov." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 June 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lev_Kuleshov>."Lev Kuleshov." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0474487/>.Inglis-Arkell, Esther. "Can the Kuleshov Effect Really Control Your Perception of Other Peopleâs Feelings?" Io9. N.p., 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://io9.com/5960035/can-the-kuleshov-effect-really-control-your-perception-of-other-peoples-feelings>."The Kuleshov Effect." Traumwind. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://traumwind.de/tindertraum/archives/kuleshov.html>."What Is a Montage?" WiseGEEK. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2013. <http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-montage.htm>.
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