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Coming Together-Nationalism Ascendant
Transcript of Coming Together-Nationalism Ascendant
On April 30, 1803, treaties were signed doubling the size of the U.S. for $15 million. This major bargain opened the entire continent up for westward exploration and expansion. This major opportunity eventually led to the buying and selling of land, attracted thousands of immigrants, the slow formation of states, and ultimately a growing nation. The Louisiana Purchase Embargo War of 1812 In the War of 1812, also known as a “second war of independence”, the U.S. took on for the second time the greatest power in the world, Great Britain. Some causes of the war included British attempts to restrict U.S. Trade, impressment of American sailors, and America's desire to expand its territory. After intense confict, the Treaty of Ghent was finally signed on December 24, 1814 ending the war. However, with no real winner and unchanged territory British forces, unaware of the peace treaty, launched a major attack on New Orleans. The attack ended in a great humiliating defeat for the British by Andrew Jackson's army boosting natianal self-confidence and encouraged the growing spirit of American expansion. John Marshall
Supreme Court Decisions Adams-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine Section I: Political Developments Thomas Cole Thomas Moran William Sydney Mount Cultural Developments Ralph Waldo Emerson “Telling the Bees” by John Greenleaf Whittier is a poem that basically teaches that people must be told of a death. Whittier tells story about the death of someone named Mary. The poem describes the setting that takes place in 3 different time periods: the time he was approaching her house a year before, the last time he saw Mary a month before, and the one year after he discovered the death of Mary. The theme in the poem is that nothing is ever the same after a loved one passes away and that the nation is a close-working nation now. Whatever happens, the U.s. is altogether. John Greenleaf Whittier Oliver Wendell Holmes In Europe, both the British nd French were tangled in a war and mistreatment by those nation towards the U.S. hurt national honor.
Too a small and weak nation to declare war, Jefferson issued the Embargo Act of 1807 hoping both Britain and France would see the values and rights of neutral nations. The Embargo forbade all international trade to and from American ports. This caused a great economic pressure within the U.S. and the Embargo ultimately failed to give deliver the message. In 1809 the Embargo was repealed and replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act and eventually the Macon's Bill No. 2. However, this act gave the U.S. respect and admiration for trying to assert their values. John Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the U.S., appointed by president John Adams in 1801.
Of the 34 years that Marshall presided in the Supreme Court the federal powers of the judicial branch were more strengthened. Most notably, an example of a more defined judicial branch was in the case of Marbury vs. Madison in which he asserted the power of “judicial review”. Marshall's long term in the Supreme Court occurred at a time when the nation was still taking shape and is considered one of the most influential jurists in U.S. history Taking inspiration from other European artists like the Hudson River painters shared an interest for America’s natural beauty and a deep religious achievement that America’s beauty was the magnificent work of God Asher Durand The origin of the term “Hudson River School” still somewhat remains a mystery. However, the term reflects three themes of America in the 19th Century: discovery, exploration, and settlement. His paintings show classic American landscapes. Realistic and greatly detailed, Drand's painting and the whole Hudson River movement captured America with a respectful ruggedness and natural beauty. Here in the painting of the Grand Canyon, Moran tried to capture both the beauty of the deepest valley and the highest peak. In this painting Moran helped generate the feeling of adventure and his depiction of the western landscape was so effective that it helped contribute to the formation of the Yellowstone National Park. Albert Bierstadt Bierstadt portrayed the West as a place of great wonder by rearranging and exaggerating many features. However, the idea of an untouched wilderness where indigenous people lived in nature led to the belief of Manifest Destiny. The idea that it was the white settlers' mission to expand and inhabit the entire frontier of the U.S. Mount was an American painter famous for painting everyday life scenes. His works focused mainly on real not landscape and had a great interest in music. During his time singing schools, classes in music, communty concerts, and 4th of July celebrations brought a wide participation in musical activities. Mount, a musician himself, captured the enjoyment of music such s fiddling and dancing in many of his works. Mid 19th century John Quidor, another genre artist, usually drew on the popular tales of Wasington Irving with his exaggerating imagery and darmatic scenes. Quidor with his paintings helped promote Irving's literature and gave the stories a taste with his own imagery. Quidor's use of color and shadow often created a dark kind of atmosphere. Although he didn't create a huge impact at the time, many historians still see him as one of the more personal American artists of the 19th century. John Quidor The Roman and Greek Classical Revival style reflected a desire to take architectural inspiration directly from ancient Roman and Greek buidings and temples. Thomas Jefferson genrally supported this style and found that this style was appropriate to the idea of a new nation. As to the once powerful and influential Roman Republic. Jefferson designed his own home the Monticello, the University of Virginia, and the Capitol of Virginia using the Classical Revival style instead of the Georgian style. The Adams-Onis treaty was signed in 1819 between U.S. Secretary of the State, John Quincy Adams, and Spanish foreign minister Louis de Onis. At the time the border between the U.S. and the Spanish was contoversial. The treaty fixed the western boundary of the U.S. from the Louisiana Purchase to the start of the Sabine River to the Rio Rojo (Red River). This treaty somewhat ended tensions between the U.S. And Spain and set a definite border between them. The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. Policy toward the Western Hemisphere. President James Monroe's message in the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warned all European powers not to interfere in any affairs of the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. would not tolerate further colonization. The doctrine was to meet major concerns at the moment and prevent any further conflicts in the future. But it soon became a type of watch over the U.S. and the new emerging nations and powers in the Americas, and the European powers. In Ralph Waldo Emerson's “The American Scholar” in his view, books tempt the reader away from their own original thoughts and discourage people from exploring new ideas and approaching certain problems. Book's are just short-lived truths and this just draws the reader or thinker to have unoriginal or uncreative thoughts. This idea influenced the U.S. because as a growing nation, th U.S. had to think for themselves and really become an independent nation. “The Last Leaf” is a poem by Oliver Wendell Holmes. Its basically about an old man who at one time everyone used to know and love him, but since everyone he used to know has passed he's seen as just starnge to look at by others. Holmes however has a hidden meaning in his poem though. “The Last Leaf”, the old man would be seen as the last leaf on the branch of a tree because it just seems strange and out of place so outside observers laugh. But the old man laughs as well because of the little branch he clings to. This would relate to the U.S. because the U.S. would seem like "the last leaf" during the Industrial Revolution and was evetually forced to change. McCulloch vs. Maryland It starts when Maryland enacted a statute imposing a tax on all banks operating in Maryland that aren't chartered in the state. It alsp provided that all such banks were prohibited from using bank notes unless upon stampedpaper issued by the state. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch, issued bank notes without following the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes and McCulloch challenged the constitutionality. This case helped assert the power of the constition over whole states and the power of the judicial branch. Gibbons vs. Ogden Began when New York granted Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton the excusive right to use steam boats on New York state waters. Livingston exlcusively gave Ogden the right to navigate the waters between New York and certain ports in New Jersey. Ogden sued Gibbons for operating steam ships on New York waters in violation of his privilage. Gibbons asserted that his steamships were licensed under the Act of Congress that “An act for enrolling and licensing ships and vessels to be employed in the costing trade and fisheries, and for regulating the same.” The New York law did not agree with the Constitution and the U.S. laws. This case asserted the power of the constitution that states cannot be above the law and everything must agree with the constition. Dartmouth College vs. woodward In 1816 the New Hampshire legislature passed laws to change Dartmouth College, a private institution, into a public university. The legislature changed the school's charter by transferring the control of trustees to the governor. They changed how they were selected. The original trustees sued claiming that the legislature was unconstitutional, that the Constitution prevented states from weakening or canceling a contract. The case in a way reminded the states the amount of power they have towards, in this case, contracts and other legal documents. Architecture Monticello University of Virginia Section III: Cultural Developments Mario Cabrera Pd. 4 APUSH