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Sub-Saharan Africa in a Geographical Perspective
Transcript of Sub-Saharan Africa in a Geographical Perspective
in a Geographical Perspective
Ms. Venessa Joy Gammad
Fatima De Guzman
It includes the African countries at
the south of Sahara Desert.
* The African Transition Zone cuts across the southern edge of the Sahara Desert at the widest portion of the continent.
Largest Desert on Earth
* It divides North Africa from the rest of Africa because of climatic and cultural dynamics.
It was further divided into regions:
The Australopithecus (southern apes) had developed throughout Southern (Taung) , Eastern(Tanzania) and Central africa. (3 mil.-1.8 mil. BCE)
The Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions have been seperated at the 5.9 kiloyear event. (5,900 BP)
The Trans-Saharan Trade and Carthage (500 BCE)
The use of camels (525 BCE)
Kush and Nubia
Ancient Somalia and Colonial resistance at the Horn of Africa (19th Century)
The Nok culture
The Aro Confederacy
Nigeria and Great Britain
The Luba Kingdom
The Cape of Good Hope
Modern and Contemporary Africa
Slavery, Child Soldiers, and Human Trafficking
Africa does not have extended mountain ranges.
The tallest point in Africa—Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania near the border with Kenya
The Rwenzori Mountains on the Congo/Uganda border
Mt. Cameroon in Central Africa
Lake Victoria: The Largest Lake in Africa
Lake Tanganyika: World's Longest Freshwater Lake
Nile River: World's Longest River
With the exception of extinct Sumerian, the
has the longest documented history of any language family in the world.
represent the oldest language family in the world.
is the largest language family in the world in terms of the number of languages it contains (1,436).
Sub-Saharan Africa is largely Christian, while North Africa is predominantly Muslim.
is a belief in a creator God; ancestor spirits; territorial spirits; evil caused by human ill will and neglecting ancestor spirits; priest of territorial spirits.
is the belief in Divinity; evil is caused by divine judgement and retribution; prophets as middlemen between Divinity and man.
Afro-Asiatic-speakers is henotheism
, the belief in one's own gods but accepting the existence of other gods; evil here is caused by malevolent spirits.
A shell necklace in Cave of Pigeons in Taforalt, eastern Morocco: Oldest Abstract Art
Central African Republic
of Congo (Zaire)
Map of Sub-Saharan Africa
Rock Art of Blombos Cave in South Africa
* In 1943 clay shards were discovered during tin mining operations on the southern and western slopes of the Jos Plateau.
* Both the terracotta sculptures and the society which made them are known by the name of the village near to which the first discovery was made: Nok.
* This is the oldest evidence for an organised society in sub-Saharan Africa.
* Nok culture terracottas are heralded as the prime evidence of pre-colonial civilization in sub-Saharan Africa
Democracy / Republic
* one of the first organized governments to evolve in Africa
* Hundreds of tribes exist today
* (example) Samburu of Kenya
* Tribes occupy a "distinct territory," and follow a tribal headman. –Barbara Miller (anthropologist)
* Headmen-chosen based on the sense of authority they project and abilities
* survived serious threats to their existence
* caused divisions among the African people
* Direct rule - Europeans held positions of authority in carrying out administrative duties
* Indirect rule - practiced most especially by France, which ruled much of West Africa.
-characterized rule by Britain
*Although all of Africa is today free from any direct European rule, the effects are still felt today.
* multiparty state with a government
* elected by a free vote of the citizens of the country
* one that includes features such as popularly backed political parties and an independent judiciary
* have had little time to develop
* weak and oftentimes corrupt
* Somalia "failed state" - entire structure of government is lacking
* Tanzania and South Africa - fairly strong republics with a working democratic system featuring popularly elected legislatures
* kingdoms developed along Africa's coastlines between the eighth and 16th centuries
* Ghana and Mali Empires (two of the earliest) - established strong monarchical governments and operated extensive trade routes
* Lesotho and Swaziland - two countries that remain traditional kingdoms
* possess weak economies
* relying on income earned by laborers who work across the border in South Africa's mines and factories.
(1925 - 2003)
Central African Republic
(1921 - 1996)
*Around 835 million total population live in around 65 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.
* A diversity of people including well educated business professionals, subsistence farmers, nomadic herders, fishermen and a large number of individuals who face challenges from civil unrest, disease and famine.
* A large number of Sub-Saharan Africans live in major urban centers around the globe but maintain strong ties with family and friends in their home countries
* 22% Muslim, 35% Christian, 41% African Traditional Religion