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Dementia

A Forgotten Memory...
by

Drew Simpson

on 21 November 2012

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Transcript of Dementia

Tests and Assessments The early symptoms of dementia can include:
Difficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but that used to come easily, such as balancing a checkbook, playing games (such as bridge), and learning new information or routines
Getting lost on familiar routes
Language problems, such as trouble finding the name of familiar objects
Losing interest in things you previously enjoyed, flat mood
Misplacing items
Personality changes and loss of social skills, which can lead to inappropriate behaviors
As the dementia becomes worse, symptoms are more obvious and interfere with the ability to take care of ones self.
The symptoms may include:
Change in sleep patterns, often waking up at night
Difficulty doing basic tasks, such as preparing meals, choosing proper clothing, or driving
Forgetting details about current events
Forgetting events in your own life history, losing awareness of who you are
Having hallucinations, arguments, striking out, and violent behavior
Having delusions, depression, agitation-More difficulty reading or writing
Poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger
Using the wrong word, not pronouncing words correctly, speaking in confusing sentences
Withdrawing from social contact
People with severe dementia can no longer:
Perform basic activities of daily living, such as eating, dressing, and bathing
Recognize family members
Understand language
Other symptoms that may occur with dementia:
Incontinence
Swallowing problems Case Study To help you know what warning signs to look for, the Alzheimer Society has developed the following list: 10 Warning Signs of Dementia According to the DSM-IV TR Symptoms of Dementia include:
A-pha-sia (language disturbance)
Memory disturbance in executive functioning (i.e., planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting)
Ag-no-sia (failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function)
Emotional behavior or personality changes
Decline in Cognitive skills (such as calculation, abstract thinking, or judgment)
A-prax-i-a (impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor function) DSM-IV TR Symptoms STATISTICS http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/pick-choisir?lang=eng&p2=33&id=1051300

http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/on/About-dementia

http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org.rap.ocls.ca/content.aspx?bookid=22&sectionid=1889063

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001748/

http://memory.ucsf.edu/ftd/medical/cases

http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/About-dementia/Alzheimer-s-disease/Warning-signs-and-symptoms/10-warning-signs?gclid=CJLlvZz0_rICFfBcMgodO1oA_A

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/1996002/article/2826-eng.pdf

http://www.alzheimer.ca/en/on/About-dementia/Dementias/What-is-dementia/Facts-about-dementiahttp://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_facts_and_figures.asp

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001748/Symptoms-Dementia symptoms include difficulty with many areas of mental function

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's_disease#Neuropathology

http://www.mrc.wayne.edu/swi.htm

http;//www.dementia-assessment.com.au/cognitive/ADAS_Packet.pdf

http://www.dementia-assessment.com.au/cognitive/index.html

http://www.fightdementia.org.au/understanding-dementia/tests-used-in-diagnosing-dementia.aspx References Normal brain vs brain of a person suffering from Alzheimers. Notice that the brain on the right is comparatively similar to dementia and also has a significant loss of density. Neuropathology Dementia is a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's.
It affects:
Memory,
Thinking,
Language,
Judgment,
and Behavior What is Dementia? Rob Reaume, Guillaume Lapensee & Drew Simpson Dementia A Forgotten Memory... Most types of dementia are nonreversible, meaning the changes occurring in the brain can not be reversed or stopped (known as being degenerative).
Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia.
Lewy body disease is a leading cause of dementia in elderly adults. People with this condition have abnormal protein structures in certain areas of the brain.
Dementia also can be due to many small strokes. This is called vascular dementia. Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors of Dementia -During 2011 Alzheimer's disease and dementia accounted for 112,245 people in Canada alone (Stats Can).

-Other Canadians living with cognitive impairments along with Alzheimer's and dementia accounted for 747,000 of the Canadian population (that's 14.9 per cent of Canadians 65 and older).

-By 2031, this figure will increase to 1.4 million.

-By comparison Alzheimer's makes up <800,000 people in the United State alone. *Alzheimer’s is the sixth-leading cause of death in the US. Exercise your Brain Today! A successful graphic designer began to have trouble finding names for people and objects. He continued to design brochures and logos for small businesses but had trouble filling out paper orders, making frequent spelling mistakes. Surprisingly, he was caught stealing a shiny necklace from a client's store. Soon afterward he began to comb the beach, spending many hours looking for seashells. While at home he began to play solitaire compulsively for 6 hours per day. He developed a new interest in squash, and his game steadily improved. He stopped working as a graphic designer but obtained a courier job and learned and remembered a complex route for delivering packages. There was no family history of dementia. Healthy Brain vs Vascular Dementia and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Brain vs 3. Problems with language-
Everyone has trouble finding the right word sometimes, but a person with Alzheimer's disease may forget simple words or substitute words, making their sentences difficult to understand. Symptoms of Dementia Cognitive Tests
Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)
Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog)
Neuropsychological Testing
Radiological Tests
X-ray
Brain Imaging Techniques
Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and
Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) In Alzheimer's disease, changes in Tau protein (a neuron stabilizer) leads to the disintegration of microtubules in brain cells. Symptoms of Mild Cognitive Impairment include:
Difficulty performing more than one task at a time
Difficulty solving problems or making decisions
Forgetting recent events or conversations
Taking longer to perform more difficult mental activities 7. Misplacing things-
Anyone can temporarily misplace a wallet or keys. A person with Alzheimer's disease may put things in inappropriate places: an iron in the freezer or a wristwatch in the sugar bowl. 6. Problems with abstract thinking-
From time to time, people may have difficulty with tasks that require abstract thinking, such as balancing a cheque book. Someone with Alzheimer's disease may have significant difficulties with such tasks, for example not recognizing what the numbers in the cheque book mean. 10. Loss of initiative-
It's normal to tire of housework, business activities or social obligations, but most people regain their initiative. A person with Alzheimer's disease may become very passive, and require cues and prompting to become involved. 9. Changes in personality
People's personalities can change somewhat with age. But a person with Alzheimer's disease can become confused, suspicious or withdrawn. Changes may also include apathy, fearfulness or acting out of character. 8. Changes in mood and behaviour
Everyone becomes sad or moody from time to time. Someone with Alzheimer's disease can exhibit varied mood swings -- from calm to tears to anger -- for no apparent reason. 5. Poor or decreased judgment-
People may sometimes put off going to a doctor if they have an infection, but eventually seek medical attention. A person with Alzheimer's disease may have decreased judgment, for example not recognizing a medical problem that needs attention or wearing heavy clothing on a hot day. 2. Difficulty performing familiar tasks-
Busy people can be so distracted from time to time that they may leave the carrots on the stove and only remember to serve them at the end of a meal. A person with Alzheimer's disease may have trouble with tasks that have been familiar to them all their lives, such as preparing a meal. 1. Memory loss that affects day-to-day function
It’s normal to forget things occasionally and remember them later: things like appointments, colleagues’ names or a friend’s phone number. A person with Alzheimer’s disease may forget things more often and not remember them later, especially things that have happened more recently. 4. Disorientation of time and place-
It's normal to forget the day of the week or your destination.....For a moment. But a person with Alzheimer's disease can become lost on their own street, not knowing how they got there or how to get home. (Study of diseases of the nervous system) Amyloid plaques occur from misfolded proteins. Folded Protein (Spoken about on Slide 4)
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