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Expansionism and Sectionalism

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Paul Peacock

on 26 November 2018

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Transcript of Expansionism and Sectionalism

Fort Sumter; Charleston Harbor Map

Democrats Split
Republicans Rejoice
The campaign
South Secedes
PANIC – attempts to Compromise
Crittenden Compromise
Lincoln’s “kills” it
Showdown at fort Sumter, SC
March 4, 1861 – Lincoln’s address
Lincoln vs. South Carolina (April 1861)

Election of 1860

The Panic of 1857
Congressional Elections 1858
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Views of Douglas – Freeport Doctrine and issues
Lincoln’s vies
Raid on Harper’s Ferry (October 16, 1859)
John Brown’s Help and assistance
Raid and aftermath
“John Brown’s Body” -- martyr
1857-1859-- years of turmoil

Settlement of Kansas
Free-soilers vs. pro-slavers – battleground
Territorial Election and Scandal
Andrew Reeder vs. President Pierce
TWO governments
Bleeding Kansas
Henry Ward Beecher and John Brown
Pottawtomie Creek

Brooks-Sumner Affair (May 19/20 1854)

Pierce’s Presidency

Election 1852

Sectional Controversy
Wilmot Proviso
Fugitive Slave Acts
Personal Liberty Laws
Prigg vs. Pa. (1842)
Northern Anger increases
California Gold Rush (1848-1849)
Debate over California
Clay’s Omnibus Bill
Compromise 1850 – Clay, Calhoun, Webster
President Taylor’s reaction and shocking event
President Fillmore

Debate over the Territories

Westward Trails


Unit 5/6 Sectionalism and Expansion

Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri
Lincoln’s approach and dealings with each
Virginia Protestors – West Virginia

Undecided Border States

Lincoln’s Leadership – Union Government

Personality and political know-how
“Rightness of Cause”
Absence of Congress and govern by Executive Order
Broad war powers and Republican Congress

Supreme Court support – Prize Cases
Emergency powers – suspend habeas corpus
Bill of Rights ignored -- Ex parte Milligan court case
Growing strength of Republicans and factions
Peace Democrats/Copperheads; Unionists/Federalists

A Nation Divided

Slavery vs. Free Labor
Southern Fears and major concerns
Northern views
Slave Power Conspiracy
Fugitive Slave Law
Underground RxR expansion (1840s-1850s)
Harriet Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Election 1852
Democrats party shifts
Franklin Pierce
Whigs – divisions – Gen. Winfield Scott – fall of Whigs
Northern anger over the election

Nation Dividing

It is now established that the President of the United States has but to declare that War exists,
. . . And the War is essentially declared.” JQ Adams

Settlement of New Mexico
Mormon Church
Brigham Young and State of Deseret

Settlement of California
Mexican War (1846-1848)
Reasons for and events leading to

Mexico and Peace Settlement; Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Election 1848 – Taylor vs. Cass
Popular Sovereignty
Free Soil Party Emergence
Further Westward Expansion

James K. Polk background and views
Domestic Achievements
Walker Tariff 1846
Independent Treasury
Internal improvement Bills
Manifest Destiny
Debate over Oregon
54 40 or Fight!
Oregon Treaty 1846 -- 49'
(become state 1859)

Polk’s Presidency

Election of 1844

Oregon settlement (1830s -40s)
Negotiations with Britain
Sec. of State Calhoun proposal

Oregon Controversy

Efforts to acquire Cuba
Ostend Manifesto (1854)
Central America
Nicaraguan Canal issues
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Panama Railway Co.
Vanderbilt and William Walker
Gadsden Purchase (1853)

Domestic Conflict
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) and Sen. Stephen Douglas

Pierce’s Presidency
"Slave Power Conspiracy?"
Election of 1848

Lincoln Takes Command
March 4, 1861 – Inaugural Address
Showdown at Fort Sumter (March-April 1861)
Major Anderson message
Lincoln’s message to Confederates
April 12, 1861

A Nation Divided

Know-Nothing Party
New Immigrants and Issues
Rise of NEW Republican Party (1854)

Election of 1856
Divisions in Democrats;
Republicans emerge; Know-Nothings

Buchanan’s Presidency (1857-1861) "Conspiracy?"
Dred Scott Decision – Scott vs. Sanford
Crisis Over Kansas
Lecompton Constitution
Buchanan’s reaction
Compromise or Blackmail – Kansas reacts
Political Realignments

Views and conflicts
Maine Boundary Dispute
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)

Texas Annexation Debate
Settlement of Texas (1803-1834)
Issues with Mexico and insurrection 1834
General Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna
Sam Houston –
Revolution and Independent Texas
(Oct 1835-April 1836)

Sam Houston and U.S. Congress
Annexation Debate
Texas enters the Union ( Dec. 29, 1845)


CSA – Confederate States of America
Confederate Government
Strengths and weaknesses of the government
Jefferson Davis and other leaders

Confederate Government

Finances, the Draft and Immigration

The National Bank Act 1862
Printing Money and Inflation
Federal Income Tax
Confederate Currency and Gold
The Cause for the Union: 1863 Emancipation?
The Issues and Inequalities of the Draft
CSA vs. Union
New York Draft Riots -- July 1863
Irish Rage -- Twenty Slave Law (Border States)
Nationalism: War via Song
Dixie vs. Union Versions
Sherman's March to the Sea Victory Song
Indian Wars and Cultural Assimilation and Acculturation

1870s -- War and Breakdown in Bureau Indian Affairs

Tribes -- "Kill the Indian, Save the Man"
Assimilation -- Captain Richard Henry Pratt and Carlisle Industrial School
Westward Expansion and Native Negotiations

Homestead Act Treaty of Ft. Larmie (51)
Morrill Land Grant Act Treaty of Ft. Wise (64)
Pacific Railroad Act Medicine Lodge Treaty (67)

Conflicts and The Indian Wars
Denver (Colorado Territory Meeting) -- Sept 1864
Sand Creek Massacre (Chivington Raid) -- Nov 1864
Resource Explosion: Iron Ore, Gold, Silver, Coal, Oil
Great Sioux Wars (1851-1891) -- Sitting Bull and Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
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