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Climate Change Lecture

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Mathew Jane

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of Climate Change Lecture

Mat Jane - Energy and Environment Manager
University of Winchester Climate Change Sources of further information Waste Department of Energy and Climate Change
DECC Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES)
United Nations Framework on Climate Change
National Atmospheric Emissions Information
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
European Comission
http://ec.europa.eu/clima/news/index_en.htm Climate Change Basics Energy Reference - http:/www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/stern_review_report.htm Climate change is caused by the increasingly unsustainable level of emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHG’s) from burning fossil fuels to create energy, it is a human induced phenomenon which is a serious issue and will need worldwide action to reduce those emissions to prevent irreversible impacts on societies, economies and ecosystems (Stern 2006 [Online]) What is climate change? What are the GHG's? Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Methane (CH4)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Historic CO2 Emissions Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) Who is causing it? What is causing it? Energy - CO2 Methane from Landfill Deforestation CFC's from refrigeration Livestock farming - methane Use of pesticides in crop farming causes Nitrous Oxide Waste @ Winchester 2010 Global CO2 estimates Transport -CO2 Global Problem The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty negotiated in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

Following the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan on the 11th December 1997

It entered into force on the 16th February 2005. The protocol sets binding targets for 37 countries and the European Union to reduce GHG's.

EU has set targets to reduce GHG's by 20% from 1990 levels by 2020 & 80% by 2050 Source: United Nations (2012) http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php Exercise Split into 4 groups and identify what can be done to help reduce emissions of GHG's and the impact of climate change in the following areas; Waste Energy Transport What is being done to combat climate change? Legislative Drivers European Union European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Covers 12,000 large energy intensive organisations who are responsible around 45% of the EU's emissions

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002)
All new buildings must be built to certain efficiency standards

The EU has sets targets for 20% of energy to come from renewable sources by 2020 United Kingdom Legislative Drivers Climate Change Levy (2001)
DEC's and EPC's (EPB regs 2007)
Climate Change Act (2008)
CRC - EES (2008)
Feed - In - Tariff (2010)
UK Carbon Plan (2011)
Green Deal - Coming soon Source: www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-of-energy-climate-change EU GHG Emissions EU emissions down 15.44%
UK emissions down 22.73% Source: Eurostat Legislative Drivers European Union European Union Emissions Trading Scheme Covers 12,000 large energy intensive organisations who are responsible around 45% of the EU's emissions

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (2002)
All new buildings must be built to certain efficiency standards

The EU has sets targets for 20% of energy to come from renewable sources by 2020 What is the University
doing? HE is one of the first sectors in the UK to have binding targets to reduce its carbon emissions by 2020 (34%)

Most Universities now have Carbon Management Plans in place

Winchester was one of the first in the UK to have a CMP

We have a target of 30% by 2015 Our Carbon footprint 2006/7 carbon footprint was 4206 t CO2
2011/12 it was 3834 t (8.85% absolute reduction) Relative reductions Estate has grown by 33.87% since 2006/7
Per m2 emissions have reduced by 31.91% Electricity Source: DECC - Digest of Uk Energy Statistics (2011[Online]) Where does our electricity come from? Energy is not efficient Low Carbon and Renewable Energy Hydro-Electric Wind Biomass Energy from Waste Nuclear Anaerobic Digestion Solar PV Solar Thermal Landfill gas Uk Renewables Target The UK has set a target of 15% of energy to be renewable by 2020 (EU Target is 20%)
The Government introduced the Feed in Tariff (FIT) in 2010 to encourage the uptake of renewable energy Source: Eurostat http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/climate_change/data/main_tables Source: DECC Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics (2011[Online]) Heat pump technology Combined Heat and Power Hydrogen Fuel Cells Which of these are renewable technologies? Heat We use gas and solid fuels to heat our homes and buildings

Coal and solid fuel use has decreased steadily since the 1960's Source: DECC Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics (2011 [Online]) Energy is traditionally created by burning fossil fuels for electricity and heat.
Using energy is not bad, wasting it is! Saving energy Reducing energy consumption is one of the most important things we can do to mitigate the likelyhood of climate change Heating Cooling Lighting Switching off Computers Efficient appliances Building design What is the University doing? All electricity is on a green tariff from renewable sources

£1.5M invested in energy efficiency - lighting, controls, insulation, efficient boilers etc

Sub-metered all buildings to manage energy more efficiently

All new buildings and refurbishments built to the highest environmental standards

Renewable Energy installations - PV, Solar Thermal and Air Source Heat Pumps Prevention
Prepare for reuse
Other Recovery
Disposal Waste Hierarchy Source: DEFRA (2012) http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/legislation/waste-hierarchy/ EU Waste Framework Directive 2008 Recycling All businesses have a legal responsibility to prevent waste and apply the waste hierarchy Recycling can be;

Source segregated

Co-mingled Collections Recovery We can recover energy from waste in a number of ways Energy From Waste Plants

Anaerobic Digestion for Food/Animal waste Disposal Uk Landfill is expected to run out by 2018

Landfill gas is usually captured to create energy

Could be the resource of the future - landfill mining We check all our contractors to ensure they are responsible and comply with the 'Waste Duty of Care'
Target of 70% recycling by 2015
2011/12 recycling rate 58%, was 14% in 2008
Food waste from catering to AD
Residual waste after recycling goes to Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) for Energy Recovery
By the end of this year 'zero waste to landfill'
Comingled collections for recycling
Accurate waste data to monitor how much waste is produced/recycled Transport We generate more waste than we did 50 years ago
We are a throw-away society
Loss of natural resources which could be reycled
Recycling saves energy from the mining of natural resources
UK landfill is running out - Creates Methane (GHG)
2010 - UK Generated 350,000,000 t of waste Represents 21.5% of UK GHG emissions in 2011 Source: DECC UK GHG Emissions (2011 [Online]) Solutions - Better/cheaper public transport, more efficient vehicles, Electric vehicles/hybrids, increasing fuel costs, new technology, less flying, car-sharing, alternative fuels EU Target is to limit global temperature rises to 2 degrees above pre-industrialised levels to avoid dangerous climate change Water Water itself does not generate GHG's but the cleaning of waste water and the distribution of freshwater water uses lots of energy
70% of the Earth is covered with water but only about 1% of the world’s water is readily available for human use.
Water is a finite resource Uk Water Distribution Leakage (Source: OFWAT) Water at Winchester Water consumption on campus is very high

Old campus with old pipework

Several large leaks detected Saving Water
Reporting dripping taps
Waterless urinals
Timer controls
Sensor taps
Rainwater and grey water harvesting
Management data Water Carbon Footprint It is the term used to describe the GHG emissions produced by a business or individual through their activities 'CO2e & CO2' Scope 2 Emissions Scope 3 Emissions Scope 1 Emissions Direct emissions that are controlled and owned by a company or person Vehicle fuel in owned vehicles
Biomass Indirect emissions from the purchasing of electricity by a company or person Other indirect emissions from the supply of goods or services

These are the most difficult to calculate Water
Staff commuting
Business travel
Full transcript