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Transcript of Germany 1918-1929
Women had a significant role to play in the german economy. Economic consequences Political consequences Germany suffered the loss of 1.7 million young men
4.3 million men being wounded during the conflict Physical cost of the war Industrial output fell by over 40% between 1914 and 1918.
Machinery was, at the end of the war, obsolete in many cases, run by ill trained people - remember that millions of working men had been killed in the war.
The workforce was not physically fit enough to work as hard as required as food shortages had been so bad that
The economy also suffered from shortages of raw materials.
Trade was hard to come by as most of her previous trading partners now sunned Germany, preferring to do Business with the victorious Allies. The war led to the kaiser being forced into abdication
The food shortages across Germany led to a radicalisation of peoples views. As a result extremist views, such as communism, became widely supported, particularly in the industrial cities.
In 1919 there were several Left Wing uprisings; The Spartacist's attempting a revolution in Berlin and a short lived Soviet Republic was formed in Bavaria. The implications of these uprisings are great. The government was forced to make use of a body called the Freikorps This group was made up of disillusioned soldiers, who were right wing in their beliefs. Born as a condition for peace
Opposition from the right (Kaiser's former advisers) and the left wing (communists)
1919 Free elections: Socialist leader Friedrich Ebert became president
The Weimar Constitution: proportional representation (Reichstag), Chancellor: responsable for day to day government, President: head of the State, govern in crisis for art. 48. The Weimar Republic
1919-1924 What problems did the new democratic Weimar
• The Republic was associated with the defeat of Germany as the Kaiser had fled before the end.
• Many leaders connected with the end of the war went on to form the Weimar govt. in 1919.
• Many Germans believed they had been 'Stabbed in the back'. Association with defeat • After 4 years of war Germany was devastated. The country needed to be re-built.
• Returning soldiers needed jobs but there was poverty & unemployment. Re-building Germany •The Treaty didn't take into consideration Germany's weak position & sought to punish her more.
•The terms were harsh, particularly the reparations.
•The 'Guilt Clause' humiliated the country.
•The Weimar govt. was associated with all of this. The Treaty of Versailles •The discontent gave rise to political extreme groups.
•There were attempts to overthrow the govt. by these groups called Putsches eg. The Kapp & Munich Putsch.
•There was a lot of violence & there were several murders of key political figures. Political Uprisings •After the war Germany was bankrupt.
•In 1921 they were faced with the reparations bill. They paid until 1923.
•Invasion of the Ruhr worsened the crisis. Germany suffered from inflation.
•The govt. responded by printing more money but this led to Hyper-inflation. Economic Problems •When Germany could no longer keep up with repayments French & Belgian troops marched into the most important industrial region.
•People in the area refused to co- operate. Passive resistance led to further decline of the area's industry, more unemployment & poverty The Occupation of the Ruhr The Weimar Republic under Streseman Why was 1924-1929
a period of recovery
for Germany? Political Stability As prosperity increased support for the extremists like Communists and Nazis declined. Moderate pro-Weimar parties tended to win elections. The very able Gustav Stresemann remained as Foreign Minister throughout the whole period. Rentenmark The new German currency established by Stresemann and regulated by the central bank solved the problem of hyperinflation.
Confidence returned to the German economy. International Cooperation 1 Worldwide economy Worldwide economic recovery meant that there were new markets for German goods abroad.
The economy prospered and unemployment was low. Stresemann knew Germany had to work with other countries.
Dawes Plan 1924 which made the reparations payments easier (French troops left the Ruhr as a consequence).
Locarno Pact 1925 settled border disputes. 1926 Germany joins League of Nations - respectability International Cooperation 2 Where did it all go wrong? •Stresemann died in October 1929 (most able politician of his generation).
•Closely followed by the Wall Street Crash.
•American banks recalled their loans to Germany.
•German economy plunged back into crisis. Cultural Achievements In 1929 the Young Plan replaced the Dawes Plan - reparations reduced by one quarter, Germany given 58 years to pay.
•American banks continued to loan German industry money to help it rebuild.