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George Elton Mayo
Transcript of George Elton Mayo
Elton mayo is best known for his 'Hawthorne Effect' Conclusions. These were based on a series of experiments he and his team conducted over a five-year period at Hawthorne factory of Western Electric Co. in Chicago.
Human Relations Theories
Elton Mayo's work was basically based on the assumption that working conditions - Lightening, heating, rest periods and so on, has a significant effect on workers' productivity
He was an Australian Psychologist, Sociologist and Organization Theorist
Lectured at University of Queensland before moving to the University of Pennsylvania
Spent most of his career at Harvard Business School and was the Professor of Industrial Research.
Known as the founder of Human Relations Movement
Also known for his research including Hawthorne Studies
When the experiments were undertaken and the output of a control group was recorded, no change was experienced in the working conditions at all, the results made every one surprised, as lightening and all other conditions were changed, both improved and worsened, the productivity level rose in all groups including the control group
This made Mayo accept that:
Working conditions aren't important to determine the productivity levels.
Other motivational factors were needed to be investigated
Experiments were carried out with a group of assembly-line workers, which consisted of changes to rest periods, payment systems, assembly-bench layout and canteen food were made at 12-week intervals.
The researchers would discuss new changes with the group, the changes made in these experiments gradually increased the output far above the original level, clearly other motivational factors eventually increased the productivity in an extremely separate way compared to other conditions of work.
The Hawthorne Effect
The Conclusions of Mayo's work
Changes in working conditions and financial rewards have a little or no effect on productivity
When management consult with workers and take an interest in their work, then motivation is improved.
Working in team and developing team spirit can improve productivity.
When some control over their own working lives is given to workers, such as deciding when to take breaks, there is a positive motivational effect.
Groups can establish their own targets or norms and these can be greatly influenced b the informal leaders of the group.
Evaluation of Mayo's research for today's Businesses
Since Mayo's Findings were published, there has been a trend towards giving workers more of a role in business decision making, calling it participation.
Personnel Departments which hardly existed in early years of the 20th century were established to try to put the 'Hawthorne Effect' into practice.
Team and group working is practiced in a lot of modern businesses creating greater opportunities for the workers and firms to benefit.