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Bionic Human

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Bionic Human

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Bionic Human

The Bionic Human
Bionic Hand
The small electrode plates that make contact with the skin have sensors that pick up electrical signals that are given off by the muscles. When an individual flexes or relaxes, such as opening or closing a hand, the signals are transmitted to the tiny computer, which then tells the bionic hand to move
The cost for the i-limb is $15,000 and can be covered by insurance, but the insurance company will only cover one hand per lifetime
Bionic Heart
Artificial Heart
• Device that replaces the lower chambers of the heart.
• Those that may benefit are those who are in end stage heart failure, need a transplant, or those who are not eligible for a donor heart.
• There are two types:
 AbioCor
 CardioWest
• Cost $100,000-300,000
• Challenging to implant for surgeons
• Hospital stay greater than one month
• Last resort option

Bionic Ear
Bionic Eye
Bionic Leg
A passive prosthesis, known as the “Cheetah.”
This prosthetic does not have any powered parts
This mechanical foot has springs which act like a tendon in the ankle
Instead of losing the energy into the ground like a person would, the energy is recaptured by these springs.
Introduction
Animal Testing
There are no laws that truly protect all animals from harm that are used in research.
Recommendations
Animals exempt from the definition of animal:
Mice
Birds
Rats
Penn State Pediatric Ventricular Assisted Device Research Study
16 Animals, 12 sheep and 4 pygmy goats
 4-6 weeks
 Sheep experienced severe, diffuse, irreversible atelectasis intraopartively, pleural effusion, and repertory acidosis in some of the experiments
IV antibiotics and pain management
End of Study
30th day animal is anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated
Euthanized under full anesthesia with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital

He has the ability to walk and talk.
The first fully bionic man was created by roboticists Rich Walker and Matthew Godden
Modern Day Frankenstein
Safety of Bionic Parts
History

• Scientist and engineers can build up to 70% of the human body.



• Bionic parts include:
- Leg - Eye - Hand - Ear - Heart


• Synthetic organs include:
 Lung  Pancreas  Kidney  Spleen  Trachea  Face  Bladder  Blood

• Ethical issues are arising when it comes to bionic parts. Is the bionic testing on animal ethical? How safe are the human trials? The ability to prolong life has several different factors that could arise. Discrimination to those who have these bionic part. Are these things affordable or covered by insurance for the average American?

Over 3,000 years ago the creation of artificial parts began. Archaeologist unearthed a carved wooden toe attached to a piece of leather that could be fitted to the foot. In the 16th century the use of mechanical limbs entered the medical world.
Tying Shoelace With Bionic Arm
This transplants differs from hearing aides by using trades in electricity vs. amplifying sounds.
It consists of a microphone being placed under a person’s skin and then a wire is run to the cochlea.
This microphone picks up the sounds and the background noise is filtered through a speech processor, and then converted into electrical pulses.
Theses pulses are then sent to the auditory nerve, which carries the signals to the brain and is translated into recognizable sounds.
Oscar Pistorius won a national championship in 2007
Was then disqualified from the 2008 summer trials due to his unfair advantage over able-bodied atheletes
After his appeal in 2008 Pistorius returned to the 2012 trials and qualified for the 400-meter race for the London Olympics
The bionic robot is a representation of the bionic industry.
Cost almost $1 million dollars to build
Rex has an almost complete set of artificial organs including a beating heart and functioning circulatory system
Hargrove's bionic leg reduces error rate, including the risk of falls, from 12.9 to 1.8 percent
Bionic organ transplant complications include blood clots, infection, device malfunctions
Nuremberg Code (clinical trials)
Cost Effectiveness
Bionic prostheses are more expensive than a traditional prosthetic.
Bionic organs are "more affordable" but still relatively expensive
Insurance vs out of pocket
Wealthy are more likely to benefit from the best options
If money is not a problem, potentially prolong life by replacing failing body parts with new ones as needed
With the bionic eye, the blind can see the basic shapes, movement, and contrast
A video camera embedded in glasses sends images to a belt-worn computer
A microchip is inserted into the retina
Light then passes through the photo sensors on the chip and these signals are then sent through the optic nerve to allow the brain to interpret
The down side is patients have received infections due the insertion of the prosthesis
• Every ten minutes someone is added to the national transplant list.

• Average of 21 people each day waiting for a transplant

• 123,323 needing transplant

• Actively on list -- 78,033

• Transplants performed January- November (2014) -- 27,036

• Donors last year January-November (2014) -- 12,124

Information retrieved from: http://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov
Transplants
Full transcript