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Research Methods Lecture 14 Sampling and Survey Research

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Courtney Thomas

on 7 January 2016

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Transcript of Research Methods Lecture 14 Sampling and Survey Research

Question Scales
Who Do You Ask?
Depending on your research question, you may be able to survey the entire population
Everyone in a particular class
More likely you'll have to sample your population to come up with a representative group of respondents
You want to be able to generalize your results so the sample has to be scientifically constructed
NOT self-selecting or convenience based OR multiple counts
In a representative sample, every major attribute of the larger population from which the sample is drawn is present in roughly the same proportion with which those attributes occur in the larger population
Race, sex, geography, age, etc.
Know the Methods
Survey Research
One of the best ways to know what people think, what they have experienced, or about them is to ask
Facts, perceptions, opinions, attitudes, behavioral reports
Time intensive and often expensive
Can be in person, over the phone, online, or through the mail
Limitations of each
What Does the Survey Ask?
Researchers must consider the content, form, format, wording, and order of questions
What information will be obtained?
Length of the survey?
Open ended or closed ended questions?
Limitations of each
How are the questions worded?
Length, ambiguity, loaded, bias, response set bias, argumentativeness, encouragement of a conditioned response, forcing a response
How does the survey look on the page?
Citation Assignment
Bi-modal
You either did it right with very few mistakes or your formatting was COMPLETELY wrong
If you're using a citation program make sure it's set to the correct formatting (Chicago Manual of Style)
Always double check against the style guideline
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
Research Methods
PSCI 2024
Winter 2016
Dr. Courtney Thomas
Lecture 14: Sampling and Survey Research

Survey Process
Conceptualizing
Survey Design
Instrumentation
Planning
Sampling
Training coders
Pretesting
Surveying
Monitoring
Verifying
Coding
Processing
Analyzing
Reporting
Types of Surveys
Personal interviews
Advantages and disadvantages?
Mail surveys
Advantages and disadvantages?
Telephone surveys
Advantages and disadvantages?
Internet surveys
Advantages and disadvantages?
Whether you are administering a survey, taking a survey, or reading research based upon survey results, always know the methods
Know the questions
Know the possible responses
Know how the responses (especially open-ended responses) were coded
Know the sampling technique
Know WHO is sponsoring and who is conducting the research
Make sure that you are confident that the results are legitimate!
Beware the push poll! Always be critical!
Likert Scaling (ordinal)
5: Strongly Agree
4: Agree
3: Neutral
2: Disagree
1: Strongly Disagree
Concerns about validity and reliability
Does the scale accurately capture what we're trying to measure or understand?
Are the indicators applied consistently or meaningfully?
Sampling Procedures
Random sample:
Each and every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected for analysis
Every possible combination of respondents has an equal chance of being selected for analysis
Selection by lottery
Sample size:
Depends on how homogeneous the population is (more = smaller)
How much are you trying to measure?
More = larger
How confident do you want to be in your results?
More = larger
BIG difference 95% v. 99%
Too Large?
Can a sample be too large?
In theory, no
HOWEVER, a smaller, well designed sample is better than a large, poorly designed one
You have to consider cost, time, and resources
Your sample size depends on your research question and the statistical analysis you plan to apply
Article Critique #3
Learn from your mistakes!
There can be serious ethical implications and political consequences for improperly conducted research
Full transcript