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Transcript of ITGS-HARDWARE
d)MAC Types of Computers Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) A laptop computer is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop has most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit. Laptop Desktop Computer MAC OTHERS A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. MAC Address A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, planar board or logic board) is a printed circuit board (PCB) found in many modern computers which holds many of the crucial components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. Motherboard The central processing unit (CPU, occasionally central processor unit) is the hardware within a computer system which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. Central Processing Unit (CPU) A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit, or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessor megahertz (MHz), gigahertz (GHz), terahertz (THz) Clock Speed Primary Storage read-only memory (ROM): Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware.
random-access memory (RAM): Random access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random access device allows stored data to be accessed in very nearly the same amount of time for any storage location, so data can be accessed quickly in any random order. In contrast, other data storage media such as hard disks, CDs, DVDs and magnetic tape read and write data only in a predetermined order, consecutively, because of mechanical design limitations. Secondary Storage differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU.
he computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage
Optical Storage devices: Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs
optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Optical Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are terms from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetized medium
Ex: hard disks, floppy disks, magnetic recording tape, and magnetic stripes on credit cards. Magnetic USB Flash Drive Flash Memory Vocabulary Short for binary digit, the smallest unit of information on a machine Bit BYTE The byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits Kilobyte (KB) The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage or transmission with three different values depending on context: 1048576 bytes (220) generally for computer memory Megabyte (MB) The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage.
The prefix giga means 10^9 in the International System of Units (SI), therefore 1 gigabyte is 1000000000 bytes. Gigabyte (GB) The terabyte is a multiple of the unit byte digital information. The prefix tera- means 10^12 in the International System of Units (SI), and therefore 1 terabyte is 1 trillion (short scale) bytes, or 1000 gigabytes Terabyte (TB) Petabyte (PB) Exabyte (EB) The exabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one quintillion bytes (short scale). Zettabyte (ZB) Yottabyte (YB) ASCII (Unicode and American Standard Code for Information Interchange): is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters. Character Encoding In computer hardware, a port serves as an interface between the computer and other computers or peripheral devices. Physically, a port is a specialized outlet on a piece of equipment to which a plug or cable connects. Electronically, the several conductors making up the outlet provide a signal transfer between devices. Ports Part 2: Input and Output Devices a keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches
used to type text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or other programs. Keyboards In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.
consists of an object held under one of the user’s hands, with one or more buttons. Mice A touchpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user’s fingers to a relative position on screen.
common feature of laptop computers
substitutes of mice. Touch-pads Optical mark recognition is the process of capturing human-marked data from document forms such as surveys and tests
is now used as an input device for data entry Optical mark recognition (OMR) Optical character recognition is the mechanical or electronic conversion of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. Optical character recognition (OCR) magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) radio frequency identification (RFID) A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed barcodes. bar code scanners magnetic stripe readers Microphones Smart Card Readers Webcams Digital Cameras Digital Video Cameras Sensors Probes real-time data collection Composite Devices Ex: Game Controllers Touch Sensitive Devices Printers Monitors Speakers Projectors CD-ROM- compact disc read-only memory DVD- (digital versatile/video disk) readers and burners A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palmtop computer, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. PDAs are largely considered obsolete with the widespread adoption of smartphones. A desktop computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for regular use at a single location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. Early desktop computers are designed to lay flat on the desk, while modern towers stand upright. Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and keyboards The Macintosh or Mac, is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced by Apple's then-chairman Steve Jobs on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a CPU is running. It uses the SI unit Hertz. The clock rate of a CPU is normally determined by the frequency of an oscillator crystal. Typically a crystal oscillator produces a fixed sine wave – the frequency reference signal. Electronic circuitry translates that into a square wave at the same frequency for digital electronics applications. The clock distribution network inside the CPU carries that clock signal to all the parts that need it. An AD Converter has a "clock" pin driven by a similar system to set the sampling rate. Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage chip that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed
memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives, and similar products
for general storage and transfer of data The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Although the prefix kilo- means 1000, the term kilobyte and symbol kB have historically been used to refer to either 1024 (210) bytes or 1000 (103) bytes, dependent upon context, in the fields of computer science and information technology. A petabyte (derived from the SI prefix peta- ) is a unit of information equal to one quadrillion (short scale) bytes, or 1 billiard (long scale) bytes. A zettabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one sextillion (one long scale trilliard) bytes. The yottabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to one septillion (one long scale quadrillion or 1024) bytes (one quadrillion gigabytes). A character encoding system consists of a code that pairs each character from a given repertoire with something else—such as a bit pattern, sequence of natural numbers, octets, or electrical pulses—in order to facilitate the transmission of data (generally numbers or text) through telecommunication networks or for data storage is a character recognition technology used primarily by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of cheque and makes up the routing number and account number at the bottom of a cheque. is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripe, is read by swiping past a magnetic reading head. A magnetic stripe reader, also called a magstripe reader, is a hardware device that reads the information encoded in the magnetic stripe located on the back of a plastic badge. abbreviated as mic, a microphone is a hardware peripheral originally invented by Emile Berliner in 1877 that allows computer users to input audio into their computers A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC) is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card reader is an electronic device that is capable of communicating with smart cards and a host. Supports both read and write data on the card. A webcam is a video camera that feeds its images in real time to a computer or computer network, often via USB, ethernet, or Wi-Fi. establishment of video links, permitting computers to act as videophones or videoconference stations. A digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs by recording images on an electronic image sensor. A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition, initially developed by the television industry but now common in other applications as well. A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. Real-time data denotes information that is delivered immediately after collection A computer probe enabled its user to tap into a computer network and process information as needed. It was also employed to gain access to the higher programming functions of any computer terminal and computer networks. Input devices, such as buttons and joysticks, can be combined on a single physical device that could be thought of as a composite device. A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area
The term generally refers to touching the display of the device with a finger or hand
Ex: Smartphones, tablets In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. A monitor or display (also called screen or visual display unit) is an electronic visual display for computers
The monitor comprises the display device, circuitry, and an enclosure Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers external to a computer, that disable the lower fidelity built-in speaker
They often have a low-power internal amplifier. For some users, a lead connecting computer sound output to an existing stereo system is practical. An object used to project rays of light, esp. an apparatus with a system of lenses for projecting slides or film onto a screen.
This connects to the computer and projects the image that is seen in the monitor of the computer Is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback.
CD-ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including video games and multimedia applications, though any data can be stored DVD is an optical disc storage format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995
DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. DVDs are used in DVD-Video and in DVD-Audio, as well as for authoring AVCHD discs.