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French Revolution and Napoleon
Transcript of French Revolution and Napoleon
with the office of Consul For Life.
1769: Napoleon Bonaparte born on Corsica
At 9: Enters military school.
16: Graduates & enters the artillery as a lieutenant.
Revolution breaks out and he joins the army of the new government.
Defends the delegates of the National Convention from French Royalists -- Defender of the Republic!!!
1796: Directory orders Napoleon to lead French army against the Austrians in Italy.
Sent to Egypt -- protect French trade interests.
Lose to British BUT news is not published in France.
1799: Directory has lost control.
Napoleon encouraged to take charge.
November 1799: Napoleon's army drives out most of the legislature -- remaining members vote to dissolve Directory.
New government: Triumvirate
(three leaders sharing power) established.
Known as the three consuls.
Napoleon is First Consul (A title of Julius Caesar).
1798-1802: Austria, Russia, & Britain were joined in the Second Coalition against France.
Napoleon successfully leads French armies and brings peace to France in 1802, ending the Second Coalition.
1800: A plebiscite held to approve the new constitution.
All real power given to the First Consul, Napoleon
Napoleon keeps many changes of the Revolution.
Efficient tax collection
National banking system
Lycées: government run schools, to provide the government with trained officials.
Lycées open to male students
of ALL backgrounds.
Public office was awarded by merit, not family background.
Education was a way of indoctrinating "right-thinking" citizens from an early age. He didn't see the need to educate girls, since they could learn everything they needed from their mothers. They were not to be active citizens.
Education according to Napoleon . . .
Of all our institutions public education is the most important. Everything depends on it, the present and the future. It is essential that the morals and political ideads of the generation which is now growing up should no longer be dependent upon the news of the day or the circumstances of the moment. Above all we must secure unity: we must be able to cast a whole generation in the same mold.
1803: To finance French expansion in Europe and to antagonize the British, Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to America for $15 million.
Napoleon focuses on Europe… . . .
Annexed Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy.
Controlled the government of Switzerland.
Britain, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia form an alliance to defeat Napoleon.
Napoleon wins many battles and the allies were unable to predict his moves.
Napoleon builds the largest European empire since the Romans.
1805: The Battle of Trafalgar
1812: Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire only places in Europe NOT in Napoleon’s control.
1804: Napoleonic Code: System of laws established by Napoleon.
Uniform set of laws that eliminated many injustices.
Limited liberty and promoted order.
Napoleon thought it was his greatest accomplishment.
1804: Napoleon wanted to be emperor and the people supported the move.
Dec. 2, 1804:
Austria, Russia, and Prussia sign peace treaties with Napoleon.
England is supreme on water for next 100 years.
Napoleon will not invade England.
France versus England in a naval battle.
Lord Nelson (Eng.) splits the French fleet and captures many ships.
French fleet is destroyed.
Many rulers answered to Napoleon -- they were on the throne, but not in charge.
Divorces Josephine -- no son
Marries Marie Louise &
has a son.
Supposed to isolate Britain and make the Continent more self-sufficient.
Smuggling occurs, the blockade was ignored, and Britain responds with its own blockade.
Britain has better navy - theirs works.
1. The Continental System
November 1806: Establishes a blockade to prevent
trade & communication between Great Britain and Europe.
Spanish peasants fight as guerrilas -– no real army to fight.
2. The Peninsular War
1808: To force Portugal to accept the Continental System
Sent troops through Spain.
Napoleon puts his brother on the throne -- Spanish people REALLY unhappy.
Lasts six years.
Napoleon loses 300,000 men.
October 1812: Begins return to France. Russians attack from behind.
Winter sets in.
3. The Invasion of Russia
-- Wants resources
June 1812: Napoleon and Grand Army
of 420,000+ men invade Russia.
Russia falls back
Scorched-earth policy: burn fields & slaughter livestock so the enemy has nothing to eat.
Sept. 14: Napoleon reaches a deserted Moscow. Fires break out overnight.
December: Napoleon and 10,000 men leave Russia.
Napoleon's Costly Mistakes
Europe smells defeat
Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria declare war on France.
Napoleon raises another army, BUT they are untrained and not ready for battle.
October 1813: Battles begin in Leipzig (Germany). French defeated.
January 1814: Allies nearing Paris.
March 1814: King Frederick William III (Prussia) and Czar Nicholas I (Russia) parade their troops through Paris.
Napoleon is exiled again -- this time to St. Helena.
He dies five years later.
April 1814: Napoleon surrenders.
Abdicates his throne
Banished to Elba
Napoleon is gone . . .
Louis XVI's brother put on the throne.
Quickly becomes unpopular -- especially with peasants.
February 26, 1815: Napoleon sails from Elba
"Grenadiers, it has been decided. We are going to France, we are going back to Paris."
The Hundred Days
March 1, 1815: Napoleon lands in France.
"I am the sovereign of the Island of Elba, and have come with 600 men to attack the King of France and his 600,000 soldiers. I shall conquer this kingdom."
Welcomed by the people of France, he quickly raises an army and is again Emperor of France.
European allies gather armies to defeat Napoleon.
June 18, 1815: Battle of Waterloo
-Allies led by Duke of Wellington (Eng)
-Battle all day with little result
-Prussians arrive late in the afternoon.
-NOW British & Prussians vs. French
Two days later: Napoleon's forces lose.
People LOVE Napoleon!!!
So focused on Europe, Haiti revolts & wins independence
Napoleon doesn't care
Path to Power
In Charge . . .
1770s- French social AND political system:
Ancien Régime (Old Regime)
Three social classes: estates
First Estate: Roman Catholic Church (0wn 10% of land)
Second Estate: Nobles (own 20% of land)
Third Estate: Everyone Else
Ancien Régime = Feudalism
REMEMBER . . . Feudalism: a social & economic system that ties people together through a system of obligations.
Taxes & Labor
Church & nobles do NOT pay taxes.
Louis XIV = debt for France.
Louis XV: spends money like 14.
Louis XVI: more of the same . . .
France is BANKRUPT!!!
Banks will not loan king anymore $$$
Third Estate is 97% of population
Bourgeoisie: Middle class (pay high taxes)
Urban Workers: Poorest group
Peasants: Largest group (80% of population)
Problems Expand . . .
1. Enlightenment Ideas
(Liberty, equality & brotherhood . . . American Revolution)
2. Economic Troubles
(Heavy taxes, crop failures, inflation, royal debt)
3. Louis XVI
(Indecisive leader, procrastinator, inherits bad situation & makes it worse)
Louis XVI's New Idea: TAX the nobles!!
Second Estate requires Estates-General (Legislature - like our Congress) to approve new tax
May 5, 1789:
Estates-General meet at Versailles for first time in 175 years.
Rules of Estates General
Each estate has delegates based on population
Each estate meets separately and each has ONE vote
New Ideas from the Third Estate:
1. All delegates meet together.
2. Each delegate receives one vote.
Second Estate: No way & Louis agrees
Estates General Meets
Third Estate wants to establish a National Assembly and pass laws & reforms.
June 17, 1789: Third Estate votes to establish a National Assembly.
*First act of revolution*
Delegates of Third Estate locked out of meeting room.
Find new space at the indoor tennis court
Reform minded delegates join the Third Estate.
Louis orders guards to surround & protect Versailles.
Tennis Court Oath:Third Estate delegates swear to stay & draw up a new constitution.
*Second act of revolution.*
Rumors fly . . . People arm themselves for protection
July 14, 1789: A mob attacks & overwhelms the guards at the Bastille (political prison in Paris).
*Third act of revolution*
Symbolic action attacking prison
Signifies the beginning.
Rebellion spreads from Paris to the countryside.
Rumors fuel the people. . .
Peasants attack the manor houses of the nobles
Destroy the papers tying them to the nobles.
October 1789: Parisian women riot over the price of bread.
Marie-Antoinette DIDN'T say: "Let them eat cake"
Women break into Versailles -- demand king & queen return to Paris.
The king, his family, and servants leave Versailles hours later never to return.
French go through multiple constitutions over 5 years.
Can't decide on role (if any) for king.
King, his family & servants will be held as "prisoners"
Finally decide to put king on trial . . . for treason
(crimes against the government).
Louis found GUILTY . . .
January 21, 1793: Louis XVI is beheaded by the guillotine.
Bread quadruples in price . . . Too expensive to afford
The Revolution . . .
"Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite"
Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood
Reign of Terror
Louis XVI is dead.
New calendar - 12 months of 30 days with no Sundays (religion is old-fashioned and dangerous).
Closed all churches in Paris and then the rest of France
1793: Radical leader Robespierre gains power.
Wants "republic of virtue" and proceeds to wipe out France's past.
July 1793: Robespierre becomes head of the Committee of Public Safety -- basically a dictator.
Robespierre's rule is known as The Reign of Terror.
Enemies on trial in the morning, guillotined in the evening.
"Enemies" were often other radicals who threatened Robespierre's power.
CPS is to protect Revolution from its enemies
October 6 1791: New law – “every person condemned to death should be beheaded.”
Guillotine developed as a humane method of execution
Guillotine created by Dr. Guillotine
Head "locked" in place; victim can't move.
It is estimated that 40,000 people were beheaded during the Reign of Terror.
Executions were public and "festive" affairs -- crowds gathered to witness the event.
The majority of the victims were of the lower classes.
Two famous victims: Louis XVI & Marie-Antoinette
July 1794: Fearing for their safety, members of the Convention turn on Robespierre.
July 28, 1794: Robespierre is executed --
The Reign of Terror is over.
People are tired of the Terror.
Tired of increasing prices for normal goods (bread & salt)
After Robespierre's Death
1795: Moderates draft new plan of government. (Another one)
Two house legislature and an executive of five men
known as the Directory.
Marie-Antoinette on her way to the guillotine
The widow in mourning
Notice the sculpture of Louis XVI
He had killed so many . . .
Napoleon is BACK in charge!!
King Louis XVI
The king, & his family had attempted to flee in their servants' clothes . . . not successful
WHO is standing behind Robespierre???
French Revolution & Napoleon Assessment
1. Before the revolution, what were the social classes in France and who is in each one?
2. What were the three acts of revolution?
3. Why was the guillotine created?
4. What were Napoleon's three mistakes and why did these ideas NOT work?
5. Explain the quote: "The Revolution, like Saturn, devoured its own children."