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Transcript of Web 2.0
Strengths & Weaknesses of SCT
SCT's first assumption is that people learn to do things by observing models. According to socio-cultural theorists
"our brains are prewired to make connections between observing and doing..."
(Ormrod, 2011, p. 304).
Reciprocal Causation of the Learning Triad
By Katie, Jason and Sadia
Wednesday, March 12, 2014
EDUC 518: TAP 3
Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is all about learning as embedded in a specific social context. It blends behaviorism and cognitive theories to understand how people learn by observing others and is influenced by the work of Albert Bandura.
Definition & Main Assumptions
Evidence in Video II
PROMOTION OF STUDENT EFFICACY
Another way Mr. Hogan incorporates SCT into his lesson plan is the through his emphasis on student self-efficacy (assumption 3). For example:
“Think about something you want to share with your partner”
(Retrieved at 00:27). This teacher is using the idea of sharing to encourage internal thought, motivation and strengthen student efficacy. Not only does the teacher asks the students to share, he enables the students to lead academic dialogue by asking the students to pick the next person to expand on his or her ideas. (Retrieved at 3:55).
Students are empowered by choice and the sense of efficacy and their actual power within the classroom: they are able to pick who expands and extends their reasoning. At 9:37, a student says,
“I agree with Leslie because I think we are pretty lucky to have new ways to create stories.”
This shows a student who takes a fellow classmates idea and expands on it, showing that he feels empowered academically to make bold and conclusory statements (Retrieved at 9:37).
Mr. Hogan does a form of feedback which in turn empowers the individual learners by identifying which students provided what feedback and how it contributed to the conversation regarding the printing press. This formative evaluation offers the students a chance to hear that they provided valuable feedback (Retrieved at 10:00).
At 17:58, the teacher praises the students for incorporating other “names” and ideas of other students into their own ideas, again promoting the concept of sharing as a product and source of academic success (Retrieved at 17:58). The teacher stresses the importance of being able to “listen and respond” both in the classroom and outside (Retrieved at 18:11). Throughout this lesson, the teacher promotes student efficacy both by reiterating their ideas, and by encouraging principles of sharing, compiling and validating the students in his summation.
Social Cognitive Views of Learning
Blends behaviorism and cognitive theories; "best of both worlds"
Incorporates EXPECTATIONS into the analysis
Acknowledges importance of human agency AND structural factors
Personal variables are recognized/learning differences are celebrated
Self-efficacy can be modeled/improved
Self-regulation can be modeled/improved
Universally applicable across different cultures
Sometimes learners have a flawed sense of self-efficacy
Sometimes teachers have a flawed sense of self-efficacy
Views human behavior as entirely controllable: Ignores biological differences, hormonal responses and/or emotional/unconscious responses
Lesson Redesign (A)
Plotting the Lesson Objective on Bloom's
1) Students will understand the historical
impact of the printing press and will be
able to connect this to the broader
theme of modern communication (B2)
2) Students will learn how to engage in
a fruitful, respectful , self-directed
discussion with their peers (D2)
Focusing on the secondary objective and keeping in mind that "learners acquire many academic skills...by observing what others do" (Ormrod, 2011, p. 305) we could model the desired norms of a good discussion by showing a video clip of a debate, a news analysis show or even a scene from a movie. Students can use a teacher-crafted template to take notes on what they are observing. Students will be directed to note presenters' listening skills, the kind of words, tone of voice and body language involved, and assess persuasion tactics. Template would be turned in and formative assessment would be on students' ability to identify key characteristics of a good discussion. Further assessment could include setting up a class debate to see whether or not students have effectively learned the desired behavior.
Lesson Redesign (B)
Mr. Hogan can increase student efficacy and empowerment by understanding the internal motivation component of self-efficacy through a metacognitive evaluation of internal motivating factors and showing that self-efficacy is rewarding both in the classroom, academically and in evaluation. Again focusing on the secondary objective, I would include an assignment (before or after class) as a reflection and response piece, to encourage increased cognition. This reflection piece can be collected and evaluated on the basis of the students breadth and depth of cognition. This would also encourage self-efficacy because the assessment would be based on cognition and the way the lesson relates to the student personally, how the student ingested the sharing process and how the student translates that information to their personal growth and understanding.
Carpe Diem! Formative evaluation on how we can seize the day and gather thee rosebuds while we may.
And finally ...
Thank you for watching
Sadia, Jason and Katie ... and Mr. Hogan!
Lesson Redesign (C)
Here is an example of a debate that could be shown
Here is a movie about debating. Select clips could be shown.
Mr. Hogan can foster self-regulated learning by prompting students to practice appropriate help-seeking. Focusing on the secondary objective yet again, I would incorporate an activity whereby, each time explicit Instructions are given and key concepts and/or points are introduced, I would prompt students to do one or more of the following three things: explain in their own words the instructions/key point/key concept just articulated; pose any clarifying questions pertaining to the relevant instruction/key point/key concept articulated; answer a question posed by their peers. This would take place within pre-designated groups while I—the instructor—monitored the relevant conversations and recorded any shared misconceptions between students. All questions and any answers (if there are a any) are recorded by students on individual worksheets, which are submitted for assessment purposes at the end of each class. I would then assess the student’s questions/answers/and rearticulations on the basis of the students’ ability to both accurately articulate class subject matter as well as appeal to peers for assistance whenever they cannot do so independently—with the explicit goal of getting all students to do so independently in the future. Ormrod (2014) makes clear that one of the processes common to self-regulated learners is that of appropriate help seeking—the ability to recognize when one needs help and to actively seek it. This would promote self-regulated learning by fostering one of the key processes exhibited by self-regulated learners—appropriate help seeking.
The first way that Mr. Hogan incorporates SCT in his classroom is through the use of reciprocal causation (assumption 4).
This was seen at the end of the video when the instructor thanked all students for both their contributions and attentiveness to one another:
“…Room 18 you did a great job. Thank you for sharing your thoughts and, not just sharing your thoughts, but listening to each other thoughts. I heard many people say ‘I agree with…’ and then mentioned a name which tells me they actually listened to what that person said. Some people said three or four names. That means that you’re really listening to one another and that’s important, not just in the classroom of course, but when you guys are out at recess or when you’re hanging out at lunch and you’re talking to one another, you need to be able to listen and respond…Very good. Give your shoulder a tap like Mrs. Jackman says”
(retrieved at 17:46).
Here, Mr. Hogan reinforced the student behaviors of respect and attentiveness and even extended them beyond the classroom to create a valuable learning experience. Students learned how to engage in a fruitful, respectful discussion via a process of reciprocal causation between three key variables--person, behavior, environment.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R.
(Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and
assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of educational objectives: Abridged edition. New York: Longman.
Ormrod, J. E. (2011).
psychology: Developing learners
(8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
USC Rossier School of Education (n.d. ).
4th Grade, Canoga Park. Retrieved March 11, 2014 from https://2sc.rossieronline.usc.edu/mod/assignment/view.php?id=50743
An example of modeling
Mr. Hogan's secondary objective was meta-cognitive. That is, it aimed to get students
thinking about thinking.
SCT is based on the work of Albert Bandura. Here Bandura emphasizes the importance of self-efficacy, a hallmark of the SCT approach.
1. People learn by observing others
2. Learning is internal. It may or may not lead to behavior change
3. Cognitive Processes affect learning AND motivation/self-efficacy
4. Environmental, behavioral and personal variables are mutually interdependent factors influencing learning
5. Behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated