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Chemical Texture Services
Transcript of Chemical Texture Services
Chapter 20 Chemical Texture
Services Precautions Chemical Relaxers Cameo's
Perms Chemistry Congrats! Wraps
Rods Objectives The Basics The History
of Perms You've finished Chapter 20! Objectives *Explain the structure and purpose of each of the hair’s layers.
*Explain the chemical actions that take place during permanent waving.
*Explain the difference between an alkaline wave and a true acid wave.
*Explain the purpose of neutralization in permanent waving. Objectives Cont. *Describe how thio relaxers straighten the hair.
*Describe how hydroxide relaxers straighten the hair.
*Describe curl re-forming and what it is best used for. History of Perms * Marcel Grateau 1872; First curling iron * Karl Nessler 1905; first perm solution and machine. * Eugene Sutter & Isidoro Calvete 1917
created a newer, smaller machine. * The first reagents used to speed up processing and prevent over heating were Borax and Ammonia Both mildly alkaline but relatively harmless. * J. Bari-Woollss; chemist 1930
- spiral perm; looks like a spiral staircase. (3D)
- point wrapping; looks like the spring from a watch (2D)
Also introduced, reduction, to perming. The biggest drawback of getting a perm with the machines, was the chance of being ELECTROCUTED!!! Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Perform periodic strand tests
Avoid scratching scalp
Do not overlap relaxer on hair strand
Adjust strength for fine/damaged hair
Do not remove more than 80 percent of curl
Thoroughly rinse relaxer from hair
Use normalizing lotion Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Do not shampoo prior to hydroxide relaxer.
Make sure hair and scalp are dry.
Apply protective base cream.
Protect client’s eyes.
Flush eyes if solution touches.
Do not allow product to touch ears, scalp, or skin. Do thorough hair analysis and consultation.
Examine the scalp for abrasions.
Keep accurate and detailed client records.
Have client sign a release statement.
Do not apply hydroxide over thio.
Do not apply thio over hydroxide.
Do not relax hair treated with metallic dye.
Do not relax overly damaged hair. Relaxer Safety Precautions Contain silicone polymers and formalin, which release formaldehyde gas when heated to high temperatures
Do not break bonds; treatment applied, hair blown dry, and flat iron set at 450°F is used on narrow sections to polymerize a coating on the hair
Eliminate up to 95 percent of frizz and curl
Last three to five months Keratin Straightening Treatments Selecting the Correct Relaxer Processing time varies according to strength of relaxer and hair type and condition. You may stretch the strand to determine if curls are removed, or smooth and press the strand to the scalp with the back of comb or fingers. If strand remains smooth, it is sufficiently relaxed. Periodic Strand Testing Mild: formulated for fine, color-treated, or damaged hair
Regular: intended for normal hair texture with medium natural curl
Super: used for maximum strengthening on extremely curly, coarse hair Relaxer Strengths Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Low pH relaxers: ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite most commonly used
Compatible with thio; not compatible with hydroxide
Do not completely straighten extremely curly hair
Can be used on color-treated, damaged, or fine hair Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) No-lye relaxers: lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide often sold as no-mix, no lye relaxers
Even though not lye, chemistry identical and little difference in their performances Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Lye-based relaxers: sodium hydroxide relaxers, also known as caustic soda
Oldest and most common type of relaxers
Same chemical used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories Metal hydroxide relaxers: ionic compounds formed by a metal such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), or lithium (Li) that is combined with oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). Metal hydroxide relaxers include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).
The active ingredient is the hydroxide ion. Types of Hydroxide Relaxers Hair is shampooed and conditioned.
Straightener is distributed evenly.
Hair is processed to desired curl reduction.
Hair is thoroughly rinsed (10 minutes).
Hair is conditioned and blown dry.
Sections are flat ironed.
Hair is neutralized and blown dry. Japanese Thermal Straighteners Main ingredient: ammonium thioglycolate (ATG)
Usually have a pH above 10
Usually have a higher concentration of ATG
Have a thicker viscosity
Break disulfide bonds and soften hair Thio Relaxers Determine correct processing time
Identify expected results
Determine curl results for the rod size and wrapping technique Preliminary Test Curls Used when the entire head is not permed
Hair long on top, but short and close on sides
Some hair too short to wrap on rods
Sleek crown and curly perimeter desired
Volume desired in certain areas only
Transition techniques used Partial Perms Rinse hair for five full minutes.
Towel-blot thoroughly but gently.
If directed, apply a preneutralizing conditioner to strengthen hair. Neutralization: Stage One The amount of processing time should be determined by the strength of the solution, not necessarily how long the perm is processed.
Most processing takes 5 to 10 minutes.
Additional time allows polypeptide chains to shift to new configuration Processing Selecting Perm Type Types of Permanent Waves (continued) * Alkaline waves (cold waves): pH between 9.0 and 9.6
* Acid waves: glyceryl monothioglycolate main ingredient; low pH
* True acid waves: pH of 4.5 to 7.0; require heat to process
* Acid-balanced: pH of 7.8 to 8.2 (not true acid waves)
* Exothermic waves: chemical reaction heats solution and speeds processing
* Endothermic waves: activated by outside heat source
* Ammonia-free waves: main ingredient does not evaporate as readily as ammonia
* Thio-free waves: reducing agent is not ATG; use cysteamine or mercaptamine
* Low-pH waves: use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites; weak and do not provide firm curl; marketed as body waves or alternative waves Thio compounds
Strength of solutions: determined by concentration of thio
Thioglycolic acid: causes reduction in perm solutions
Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG): main ingredient in alkaline perms
Perm pH: second factor in solution strength Reducing Agents Once the waving solution is in the cortex, it breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called reduction.
Reduction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen. Reduction Reaction Croquignole: hair wrapped from ends to scalp in overlapping concentric layers. Basic wrap. Wrapping Techniques Panels: size, shape, and direction of panels vary based on type of wrapping pattern and type and size of tool
Base sections: subsections of a panel based on size of tool Sectioning Size, shape, and type of tool determine shape of new curl.
Perm softens hair to conform to new shape after wrapping.
Uniform, even tension produces the resulting curl (too much tension can mark or break the hair). Curl Determination A perm wrap is essentially a wet set on perm tools instead of rollers. (Wet set breaks hydrogen bonds only. Perm breaks disulfide bonds that are stronger and more resistant.)
Types of Perm Wraps:
* Mohawk or Straight
* Halo or Curvature
* Double Halo
* Gemini Perm Wrap Physical change: caused by wrapping the hair on tools Two-Step Process of Permanent Waving Disulfide: formed when sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined; only broken by chemicals; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strength Side Bonds Made up of long, coiled chains of amino acids linked together end-to-end like beads by end bonds Keratin Proteins * Amino acids: compounds made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur
* Peptide (end) bonds: chemical bonds that join amino acids together end-to-end in long chains to form polypeptide chains
* Polypeptide chains: formed by peptide bonds linked together
* Keratin proteins: make up about 97 percent of hair’s structure Building Blocks of Hair pH means potential hydrogen. It represents the quantity of hydrogen ions and measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance.
pH scale has a range of 0 to 14; 7 is neutral.
Below 7 is acid.
Above 7 is alkaline.
Hair is 4.5 to 5.5. pH and Texture Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Use neutralizing shampoo with color indicator to confirm restored pH.
Use conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing tangles.
Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair. Perform consultation.
Pre-conditioning: Equalize porosity.
Permanent color/highlights: Use mild to regular shampoo.
Toners or demigloss: Perform three to five days after keratin treatment. Steps to Keratin Straightening Process does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds.
Hair remains at a high pH.
Acid-balanced shampoo or normalizing lotion is used.
Caution: Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for thio relaxers or soft-curl perms. Hydroxide Neutralization Base: require application of base cream to protect skin and scalp during relaxing
No-base: do not require protective base cream since they already contain a base cream that melts at body temperature; protective cream may be applied around ears and hairline. Base and No-Base Relaxers Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Guanidine hydroxide relaxers: also sold as no-lye relaxers.
Hydroxide ion is active ingredient
Require two components to be mixed
Straighten hair completely
Less scalp irritation; use for sensitive scalp
Do not reduce hair damage
More drying to hair Examples:
Not compatible with thio relaxers
Have a pH of 13.0 or more
Lanthionization Hydroxide Relaxers The neutralization used with thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation reaction caused by the neutralizer rebuilds the disulfide bonds that were broken by the thio relaxer. Thio Neutralization Extremely curly hair grows in long, twisted spirals, or coils. Cross-sections are highly elliptical; they vary in shape and thickness along their lengths. The thinnest and weakest sections are located at the twists. Extremely Curly Hair * Pre- and Post-Service (pg323)
* Preliminary Test Curl (pg 593)
* Basic Perm Wrap (Mohawk) (pg 595)
* Curvature Perm Wrap (Halo) (pg 598)
* Bricklay Perm Wrap (pg 601)
* Weave Perm Wrap (pg 603)
* Double-Rod Wrap (Piggyback) (pg 605)
* Spiral Wrap (pg 607) Practical Procedures Perm Safety Precautions (continued) Do not dilute or add ingredients
Keep solution away from eyes and skin
Always follow manufacturer’s directions
Wear gloves when applying solutions
Replace wet cotton or towels
Discard unused products * Protect client clothing.
* Determine allergic reaction.
* Examine scalp.
* Determine extent of damage.
* Determine prior hydroxide relaxers.
* Perform metallic salt test.
* Apply protective barrier cream.Do not dilute or add ingredients
* Keep solution away from eyes and skin
* Always follow manufacturer’s directions
* Wear gloves when applying solutions
* Replace wet cotton or towels
* Discard unused products Perm Safety Precautions Many men are looking for added texture, fullness, style, and low maintenance that only a perm can provide.
Perms look fuller, make straight or coarse hair more manageable, and help control stubborn cowlicks.
Techniques are the same for men and women. Perms for Men * Disulfide bonds are broken with hydrogen.
* Disfulfide bonds are rebuilt.
* Hydrogen bonds attract oxygen.
* Water molecule is formed.
* Water is removed.
* Side bonds are re-formed. Neutralization: Stage Two * Rinse with warm water.
* Always use a gentle water stream.
* Avoid pressure on rods while rinsing.
* Rinse most fragile areas first.
* Thoroughly rinse nape area and rod bottoms.
* Rinse for recommended time.
* Smell hair; continue rinsing if needed.
* Gently blot hair with towel (hair is weak.)
* Check for excess moisture, especially at nape.
* Adjust any loosened or drifted rods Proper Rinsing and Blotting Neutralization stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form. It performs two functions:
Deactivates waving solution
Rebuilds broken disulfide bonds Perm Waving (Thio) Neutralization If too few disulfide bonds are broken, hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not hold the desired curl; hair at scalp is not as curly as ends; more processing time is required. Underprocessed Hair Does not mean overly curly. If too many disulfide bonds are broken, hair is too weak to hold a firm curl.
Has weak curl or may be completely straight. Hair at scalp is stronger than ends. Overprocessed Hair Types of Permanent Waves Wrapping Techniques (continued) Piggyback (double-rod wrap): hair wrapped on one rod from scalp to middle of strand; another rod used for remaining strand The angle at which the tool is positioned and the directional wrap pattern Base Direction Tools come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes that can be combined with different wrapping methods to provide a range of styles. Perm Tools Side Bonds (continued) Salt: relatively weak physical side bonds resulting from an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges; can be broken by water; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strength
Hydrogen: weak physical side bonds resulting from an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by water; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strength Building Blocks of Hair (continued) Side bonds: disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together Hair Structure (continued) * Cortex: middle layer of hair located beneath * cuticle; responsible for hair strength and elasticity
* Medulla: innermost layer of hair, often called pith or core; does not play a role in restructuring; missing in some types of hair Chemical hair relaxing is the process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straighter or smoother form. Chemical Hair Relaxers Disulfide bond joins sulfur atoms.
Disulfide bond is broken.
Sulfur atoms attach to hydrogen from solution.
Polypeptide chains re-form. Perm Waving Reactions Alkaline solutions soften and swell the hair and open the cuticle. Chemistry of Perm Waving Wrapping Techniques (continued) Spiral: hair wrapped at an angle to form a coil (like the grip of a tennis racket) Double flat wrap
Single flat wrap
Bookend wrap End Papers Types of Tools (continued) Soft bender rods are about 12 inches long with equal diameter; they are made of soft foam and take a variety of shapes.
Loop or circle rods fasten together to form a circle. Concave rods have smaller circumference in middle than on ends.
Straight rods have consistent diameter. Types of Tools Cuticle: tough outer layer of hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects hair from damage Hair Structure On-base placement
Half–off base placement
Off-base placement Base Placement
Chemical change: caused by the processing of waving solution and neutralizer
Acid solutions result in far less swelling of the hair than alkaline solutions. Cameo's Perms Matrix Opti Line:
* Opti Curl Extra Body
* Opti Curl Variable Action
* Opti Curl Color Protecting
* Opti Care Extra-Conditioning Alkaline
* Opti Thermic Self-Heating Exothermic
* Color Wave
* Acid Wave
* No Color Cameo's Perms Cont. Opti Curl Variable Action:
* Self Adjusts to different hair porosity.
* Creates optimum curl formation
* Anti-frizz Neutalizer
Recommended for: Fine, Normal, Multi-porosity and Color-treated (up to 20 vol) Opti Curl Extra Body:
* Springier, firmer curls for extra volume.
* Self Adjusts to different hair porosity.
* Anti-frizz Neutralizer
Recommended for: Normal, Resistant and Color-treated (up to 20 vol) Cameo's Perms Cont. Opti Care Extra-Conditioning Alkaline
* Protects, Conditions and Fortifies.
* Creates radiant, resilient, beautifully formed curls.
* Anti-frizz Neutralizer
Recommended for: Normal, Resistant, and Color-treated (up to 20 vol.) Opti Curl Color Protecting Alkaline:
* Defined curls and color stays vibrant.
* Anti-frizz Neutralizer
Recommended for: Color-treated (up to 20 vol.) Cameo's Perms Cont. Opti Thermic Self-heating Exothermic
* Enriched with moisturizers and conditioners to be gentle on hair.
* Penetrates resistant, coarse hair for long-lasting, resilient curls.
Recommended for: Resistant, coarse hair. Biolage Acid Wave
* Fresh Smelling, low ammonia.
* Long-lasting, true-to-rod curl, for natural look and feel. Cameo's Perms Cont. Biolage Color Wave
* No Ammonia formula and natural botanicals.
* Keeps radiance of color-treated hair. Superstar Perm
* Alkaline, Conditioning.
* Increased body, wave strength, and texture. Cameo's Relaxers Mizani Classic Rhelaxers:
* Fine/C-T is mild strength for fine/color-treated hair.
*Med/Normal is medium strength for normal hair
* Coarse/Res is super strength for coarse to resistant hair types. Digital Perms Uses hot rods with temperature regulated by machine w/a digital display. Basically, it is the same as a traditional perm. Sometimes called a "Hot Perm".
Traditional perms or "cold perms" have a prominent wave when the hair is wet. A digital perm has a more prominent wave when dry.
They thermally recondition the hair, usually feels softer, smoother and shinier. Consultation * What are the clients expectations?
* What is their daily routine?
* What type of curl are they wanting?
What else can we ask?
Get as much info as possible. * set client expectations (what should the client expect to see with service? Don't make promises that you know you can't hold up.)
* Explain service (give them a brief summary; roll the perm, process solution, neutralize, etc)
* Make sure that you are on the same page with the client. Perms for Men cont Wrapping Techniques (continued) Double Halo: Wrapped like a basic halo but with 2 halos. Wrapping Techniques (continued) Bricklay Wrap: Zig zag partings. Rods lay as bricks would on a building. Wrapping Techniques (continued) Gemini Wrap: Sectioned off as normal but each section split in 2. First rod is rolled normally. Second rod is rolled to sit just on top of the first. Be sure to... Make sure your bands are not too tight. They should sit on top of the rod, not next to the scalp.
When rolling the front rods, stand in front of your client to get the right positioning.
Rods should all be in horizontal position. Rods SHOULD NOT be vertical, exception is around the face.
When doing a double halo wrap, start from the back section and move towards the front.
Spiral wraps should be done in inch in sections and squares. Rod clasp should face the bottom in or to remove easily. Fun perm methods * Rag curlers
* Rod to Roller
* Bubble Wrap
* Garbage Bags Cameo's Perms Cont. Cameo's Perms Cont. Cameo's Perms Cont. Cameo's Perms Cont. * Braid to Roller
* Knitting Needles
* etc.... Fun perm methods cont. Fun perm methods cont. Fun perm methods cont.