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AS 1.6 Livestock Management
Transcript of AS 1.6 Livestock Management
Achievement: Demonstrate knowledge of livestock management practices
Merit: Demonstrate in-depth knowledge of livestock management practices
Excellence: Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of livestock management practices. Livestock Management Notes Place your own picture
behind this frame! Double click to crop it if necessary San Francisco Budapest Important
Details (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr Stockholm (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Assets map details doodles notes outlook photo frame What we will cover
Ruminant, monogastric and reproductive systems
Feeding practices, breeding practices, and health practices
Feeding programmes, vaccinations, drenching, stock identification and breeding. Digestive Systems
There are two types of digestive systems. Ruminant and non-ruminant/monogastric.
Ruminant - group of mammals that have several stomachs. They feed only on plant material (herbivores) eg sheep, cattle, goats and deer. The majority of farm animals are ruminants.
Ruminants are able to take fibrous plant material and convert it to high quality food eg meat and milk.
Non-ruminant/monogastrics - animals that have only one stomach. These animals can be herbivores, omnivores or carnivores eg horses, pigs, dogs and us!! But first we must understand the difference between digestion and absorption.....
copy the notes from the whiteboard Parts of the Monogastric digestive system Absorption of digested products into the bloodstream
Storage and removal of excess waste material Large intestine Bacterial enzymes Cellulose Limited digestion in some animals Caecum Bile from the liver
Pancreatic juice Fats
Proteins Chemical breakdown of food
Absorption of digested materials into the bloodstream Small Intestine Gastric juices and enzymes Proteins Mixes and grinds food
Some chemical digestion Stomach Saliva and enzymes Starch Physical digestion
Some chemical digestion Mouth DIGESTIVE JUICE SUBSTANCE DIGESTED FUNCTION ORGAN Summary of Ruminant Digestion Waste material concentrated and stored until expelled as faeces. Large Intestine Digestion and absorption Small Intestine Enzymes are released which kill the microbes and digest the materials present Abomasum Water is extracted and food is compacted into a large mass Omasum Food is physically and chemically broken down by churning and microbial action Rumen and Reticulum Transports food to the rumen. Oesophagus Food is physically broken down into smaller particles.
Saliva lubricates the food and reduces acidity and alkalinity problems. Mouth FUNCTION ORGAN Human digestive system Mouth Salivary Gland Epiglottis Oesophagus Stomach Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct Large Intestine Small Intestine Anus Pancreas Appendix Stomach Oesophagus Stomach Cardiac sphincter Pyloric sphincter Oesophagus and Trachea oesophagus trachea Note the difference between the oesophagus and the trachea. The oesophagus is made of smooth muscle and the trachea contains rings of cartilage. Rumen 4. Microbes convert sugars, starches and cellulose into volatile fatty acids ( acetic, propionic and butyric acid). These are absorbed into the animals bloodstream or are used to make mircobial protein.
5. Microbes convert proteins into amino acids and other nitrogen sources such as urea into ammonia, which are then used to make microbial protein. Rumen Small Intestine Bile and pancreatic juice are released which make food alkaline and assist in digestion and absorption.
Simple sugars, amino acids and minerals are absorbed through the villi.
Capillaries then move the digested food to the liver where it is prified and stored until it is required by the rest of the body. Small Intestine showing blood vessels that carry digested food to the liver. Cattle and Sheep Liver Cattle Liver Sheep Liver Omnivore teeth Large Intestine Waste material is condensed and stored until it is eliminated via the anus. Large Intestine The Liver and Gall Bladder Liver Gall Bladder Structure of teeth Herbivore Teeth Pig Digestive System Caecum of a Pig The caecum is a sac that opens into the digestive tract. “ So what are you up to ?”
“Oh, just sitting around chewing the cud.”
The life of the cow and other ruminants involves eating, upchucking, chewing the barfed up cud and swallowing it down. About nine hours of every day is spent chewing cud. Cattle teeth Reticulum The second stomach.
Its mucus membrane has a honeycomb appearance.
Food is further broken down by physical and chemical digestion and then forced into the omasum. Omasum The third stomach.
Has a folded mucous membrane.
In the omasum, water is extracted and food is ground and condensed into a larger mass. The Digestive System Structure of teeth A tooth consist of an exposed crown and a root buried in the gum and jaw.
The crown is usually covered by an outer layer of a hard substance called enamel. Enamel is especially hard and related to bone.
Below the enamel is the dentine(not as hard as enamel).
Beneath the dentine is the pulp cavity. The cavity is filled with pulp. Pulp is the living tissue of a tooth. Contain blood vessels and nerves.
Blood vessels and nerves reach the pulp cavity through a channel called the root canal.
An additional layer of bony material called cementum usually surrounds the root. See next. Types of teeth Teeth in animals come in 4 sorts: Incisors, Canines, Premolars and Molars
Incisors:- Cutting teeth, at the front of the mouth primarily used for the first bite. They have a sharp cutting edge and one root.
Canines:- Stabbing teeth, have a sharp point and are used with incisors to bite into food and or to kill prey.
Premolars:- Next back from canines. Generally similar to molars in form and function in herbivores and omnivores, in some carnivores they are slimmer and used to cut flesh. These are called Carnassial teeth. Premolars are used to crush and grind food.
Molars:- Larger than premolars. Used for crushing and grinding. Sheep Teeth Teeth of a Horse Carnivore Teeth Human Teeth Sheep Teeth Mouth Monogastric digestion begins in the mouth.
While in the mouth, food gets chewed by the teeth in a process called Mastication. The food is broken down physically by the teeth.
Food enters the mouth and is mixed with saliva. Saliva is released by the salivary glands found under the ears, below the jaw on each side and under the tongue. Saliva found in monogastric mouths, contains the enzyme salivary amylase which begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
The tongue mixes the food with saliva. The tongue rolls the food into a ball or Bolus which is pushed down the oesophagus.
The oesophagus is a smooth tube of muscle found beside the trachea. It goes from the mouth to the stomach. Food moves down the oesophagus by muscular contractions of the muscles of the oesophagus. These are called peristaltic contractions. Peristalsis Tongue Oesophagus 5. When food is swallowed, the epiglottis closes the trachea allowing the food to pass into the oesophagus.
6. The food moves into the stomach via the cardiac sphincter. Swallowing Stomach The stomach also produces intrinsic factor which is needed for the absorption of vitaminB12.
From time to time, the lower sphincter relaxes and allows some of the liquid chyme to flow into the small intestine.
In the human stomach, most foods will pass out of the stomach within 3-4 hours.
An empty stomach stimulates nerves which give the sensation of hunger. Small Intestine - Duodenum The small intestine is small in diameter but is up to 8m long.
Divided into two regions:- a short duodenum, followed by the ileum.
When chyme enters the duodenum, it is mixed with pancreatic juice, intestinal juice and bile. Digestive Juices Pancreatic Juice:- secreted by the pancreas and contains 3 enzymes.
Amylase – continues breakdown of starch
Lipase – breaks down fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol
Trypsin – changes proteins into peptides.
Intestinal Juice:- produced in the walls of the duodenum. Contains several enzymes including pepsidase which breaks peptides into amino acids.
Bile:- produced in liver, stored in gall bladder and then passes through bile duct to mix with food. It has two functions.
Bile is alkaline and changes the pH of the chyme, as enzymes in the duodenum function best in alkaline conditions.
Bile breaks down fats and oils into small droplets. This is called emulsification. Small Intestine - Ileum 1. The liquid that passes through the ileum contains the products of chemical digestion:- glucose, amino acids,fatty acids, glycerol, minerals and vitamins.
2. The ileum is lined with tiny finger like projections called Villi (villus). Villi increase the surface area resulting in greater absorption.
3. Each villus contains a network of blood capillaries and a lacteal (or lymph vessel) which is a branch of the lymphatic system. Amino acids, monosaccharides eg glucose, minerals and most vitamins are absorbed into the blood capillaries.
4. The capillaries lead to the Hepatic Portal Vein which carries absorbed food to the liver.
5. Fatty acids, glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed into the lacteals which lead to the main lymph system. The lymph system eventually joins with a major vein, discharging absorbed foods into the blood stream. A Villus The Intestine Large Intestine Water is absorbed as the material passes through the intestine.
The semi-solid faeces that remain pass down the rectum and are periodically egested through the anus.
In Humans, the caecum and appendix form a dead end pouch where the small intestine enters the large intestine. It has no essential function in humans.
Material entering large intestine is mainly water and undigested material such as cellulose. Horse Gut Digestion in the Horse Horses’s stomachs and small intestines are similar to our own. The large intestine in a horse is massive and very complex.
The large intestine and colon is folded on itself several times and is divided into segments and subsegments as follows:-
Ascending colon -Right ventral
2. Transverse colon
3. Descending colon – small colon Horse When food is in the colon, it is mixed backwards and forwards.
Water is removed.
Bacteria present in the intestine act similar to the bacteria in the rumen. Some fermentation of cellulose occurs releasing volatile fatty acids which are absobed by the animal. Pig Digestion Digestion begins in mouth like humans. Food is chewed and mixed with saliva.
Moves into the simple stomach. Small Intestine of a Pig 3. From the stomach, it moves into the small intestine.
4. Food is mixed with digestive juices and some absorption takes place.
5. It then moves into the large intestine via the caecum. Ruminants produce a lot of methane gas which makes them fart and burp a lot. This gas is produced by bacteria living in the gut. Ruminant Digestion Examples are Sheep, Cattle and Deer.
They have 4 stomachs and use physical, chemical and microbial action to break down their food. Ruminant Digestion The ruminant digestive system has the following parts:-
Anus Eating Ruminant animals swallow their food with very little chewing. It moves into the rumen where it is mixed with microorganisms.
When the animal has full stomach it retreats to a cosy spot and regurgitates the food to continue the grinding process. This is called Cudding or Ruminating.
The reason why ruminant animals chew their cud is because the grass or material that they eat needs to be a certain size before it passes from the rumen into the reticulum. In sheep it needs to be 1 mm in diameter and in cattle, 2 mm in diameter. Rumen The largest of the 4 stomachs (over 200l capacity in the cow).
It is a giant fermenting vat containing billions of micro-organisms/ml of fluid (Rumen liquor).
By muscular contractions it continuously mixes the rumen contents. Microbes in the Rumen Four groups of organisms live in the rumen (bacteria, protozoa, bacteriophage and fungi). All are anaerobic, that is they live without oxygen. The most important is the Rumen bacteria.
The function of the rumen bacteria is to;-
Break down carbohydrates to simple sugars.
Other species break these sugars into volatile fatty acids, carbon dioxide and methane.
Break down proteins into amino acids, some can then break these down into ammonia and volatile fatty acids.
Help break down fatty acids so they can be absorbed in the small intestine.
When the bacteria move into the abomasum they are killed and then digested in the small intestine supplying protein to the animal. Abomasum The fourth stomach.
Its function is similar to the monogastric stomach because enzymes and gastric juices are released which kill and digest the microbes present. Advantages of ruminant digestion The ruminant digestive system has many advantages. It can:
Upgrade low quality feedstuffs
Make protein from urea and other non-protein sources
Produce its own vitamin B from microbil sources. Disadvantages of ruminant digestion It is an inefficient system because energy is lost in heat, methane and carbon dioxide
Animals must spend a large amount of the day eating to meet nutritional requirements
High quality protein is depressed in the rumen because energy is wasted converting it into microbial protein
Animals are susceptible to bloat
Rapid changes in diet, such as feeding cereals to animals in droughts, can kill them because they need time for their microbe populations to adjust to the new diet. Ruminant Stomachs Reticulum Omasum COMPARISON OF RUMINANTS SHEEP AND OX WITH HORSE AND PIG DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS Digestive System of a sheep Cross section of a cow Types of Digestive Systems There are 3 types of digestive systems found in farm animals:-
Avian in birds (ducks, chooks).
Monogastric digestion – Humans, Pigs, Horses and Dogs.
Ruminant Digestion – Goats, Deer, Sheep and Cattle.
In this section, we will be concentrating on Monogastric and Ruminant Digestion. Dental Formula Scientists have developed a dental formula which works out the number and type of teeth the animal has. This formula lists the teeth on one side of the jaw only.
I (incisors) C (canines) P (premolars) M (molars)
I (incisors) C (canines) P (premolars) M (molars)
The dental formula for sheep is
Deciduous 0 0 3 0 permanent 0 0 3 3
4 0 3 0 4 0 3 3
Deciduous 3 1 4 0 permanent 3 1 4 3
3 1 4 0 3 1 4 3 Monogastric Animals Humans, Pigs, Horses and Dogs are example of monogastric animals.
Monogastrics have one stomach only, which uses physical and chemical methods to break down food.
Most monogastrics have a similar digestive system with the following parts:-
Rectum and Anus. Swallowing Stomach 1. It has two sphincters that keep the stomach contents inside the stomach.
2. The cardiac sphincter is found at the top of the stomach and prevents stomach contents from damaging the oesophagus. The second sphincter (pyloric sphincter) is found at the base of the stomach before it enters the intestines.
3. The stomach is basically a bag of muscle shaped like a J. The volume of a human adult is about 1.5l but as it is made of muscle it is able to stretch.
4. The stomach produces a liquid called gastric juice. This is a mixture of hydrochloric acid and trypsin (an enzyme that breaks proteins into polypeptides).
5. Food is mixed up with the acid and enzymes and is called Chyme. Comparison of Pig, Horse and Fowl Teeth Ruminants have incisors only on the bottom jaw for breaking the pasture off and then grinding molars to grind the food into smaller pieces.
Cattle use their tongue to wrap around the feed and pull it into the mouth. Therefore they do not graze as close to the ground as sheep. The material they eat is not selected for clovers and so they can ingest large amounts of indigestible material.
Sheep and horses use their lips to grab their food so can graze the grass more closely. Sheep can pick out clovers and other preferred portions of the sward eg. Timothy, chicory, plantain, dandelions etc. Saliva Unlike human saliva, the saliva in ruminants does not contain salivary amylase, the enzyme used in the breakdown of carbohydrates.
Saliva is produced continuously from the salivary glands. It flows down the oesophagus into the rumen.
Ruminant saliva contains a number of chemicals which keep the pH in the range 6.5 – 7.
Sheep produce up to 15 litres per day while a cow can produce up to 200 litres per day. Rumination Regurgitation – In this the rumen contents are bought to the entrance of the oesophagus by muscular contractions of the rumen wall. The animal then makes an inspiratory movement, which sucks a bolus into the oesophagus. Anti-peristaltic movements (muscular waves) of the oesophagus then conveys the bolus up to the mouth.
Re-chewing – The tongue then expresses most of the water from the bolus and water is swallowed while the herbage is then reground between the molar teeth and mixed with saliva until it is a watery consistence.
Re-swallowing – When ready, the material is then swallowed in the normal way and another bolus is drawn up to the mouth. The Liver The liver is one of the largest and most important organs in the body. It is essential for the functioning of the body.
It absorbs nutrients from the blood and regulates their use and distribution.
The liver secretes a continuous flow of bile, which aids in the digestion of fat.
The liver is also a storage facility for Vitamin A, energy in the form of glycogen and iron. Rumen and Contents Abomasum