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Transcript of Incas
and richest empire in the Americas. The Inca Society Like all ancient civilizations, its exact origins are unknown. Their historic record, as with all other tribes evolving at that time, would be recorded through oral tradition, stone, pottery, gold and silver jewelry, and woven. Inca society was made up of ayllus, which were clans of families who lived and worked together. Each allyu was supervised by a curaca or chief. Families lived in thatched-roof houses built of stone and mud. Furnishings were unkown.
Families sat and slept on the floor. In Inca social structure, the ruler, Sapa Inca, and his wives, the Coyas, had supreme control over the empire. The High Priest and the Army Commander in Chief were next. The High Priest Then came the Four Apus, the regional army commanders. Next were temple priests, architects, administrators and army generals. Next were artisans, musicians, army captains and the quipucamayoc, the Incan accountants. At the bottom were sorcerers, farmers, herding families and conscripts. Inca Farmers The Inca Civilization The Incas adopted and improved upon the terracing methods invented by pre-Inca civilizations. They built stone walls to create raised, level fields. The greatest achievement of Inca civilization was the architecture. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century. The empire began to expand in about 1438. This included large parts of modern:
western and south central Bolivia
north and north-central Chile
and southern Colombia
into a state comparable to the historical empires of the Old World. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken. The Incas had a highly organized government based in Cuzco. Government The emperor lived there and was regarded to as The Inca, the main supreme ruler. Underneath the emperor were the nobles No other people really were called Inca, but over time this term came to mean the society in general. The high priest, governors, and generals were important members of the royal council. Most members of the royal councils were family members. The emperors almost always married their own sisters. The emperor would choose a successor to the throne from among his many sons. Generally, the oldest first born son would become the next emperor. The Emperor would consult the high priest, who was also a sibling or uncle, for help with his problems. He also talked to the generals to develop war plans.
The generals were most likely to be a relative or good friend. The Incas were ruled by a Monarchy. Government Requirements The tax requirements were high. Women were expected to weave a certain amount of cloth, while men had to mine or serve in the army. Ordinary people with no rank or title were called commoners. If the commoners didn't have money, they'd pay with service on state projects or make items to sell such as thread or hand-woven cloaks. People could also pay the government by giving a portion of their yearly crop to the collectors for storehouses instead. When the Inca armies conquered other ruling cities, they didn't kill the local rulers. Instead they let them rule as long as they followed Inca rules, didn't rebel, paid taxes, and kept the storehouses full. The History of the Incas In one, Tici Viracocha of Colina de las Ventanas in Pacaritambo sent forth his four sons and four daughters to establish a village. Along the way, Sinchi Roca was born to Manco and Ocllo, and Sinchi Roca is the person who finally led them to the valley of Cuzco where they founded their new village. There Manco became their leader and became known as Manco Capac. However, like many other cultures, the Inca´s history was based on a myth. There are four myths that people have made up to tell how the Incas came to be. Tici Viracocha Religion The Inca Religion allowed conquered cultures to incorporate their own religion and beliefs. The Incas worshipped more than one god (they were polytheistic) and had a rich mythology. They left no written record of their religion, they did leave an oral record of their beliefs that has been passed down from generation to generation through the centuries. The people believed that nature was created by their most important god, Viracocha. Inca culture was formed from the evolution of various Andean cultures that can be traced back up to twenty thousand years ago when hunters and Neolithic agriculturists lived there. Viracocha was the creator of the Sun, the Moon and the Stars.
They believed Sun was the most important servant of Viracocha. To the Inca, Sun was the life saver. Sun was the father of Inca emperor. The Moon was a woman, the wife of the Sun. The Inca believed that the eclipse of the Moon was caused by a great serpent or mountain lion trying to devour her.
To frighten the serpent off the Moon, the Indians pointed their weapons at it and shouted. Thunder, the god of weather, was another important god Farmers worshiped earth as Earth Mother, while the fishermen worshipped Mother Sea In addition to worshipping gods, the Inca worshipped the huacas -sacred places -which were everywhere throughout the Inca Empire Inca religious ceremonies followed the Inca calendar. The seasons of the year were very important to the Inca, because they lived off the land. Their calendar was divided into twelve lunar months, named for important agricultural and religious events. Mama Quilla, the Goddess of the Moon Way of Life Incas didn't have a writing system They built irrigation networks in the coastal desert Their main crops were:
Potatoes An edible root called Oca Grain, known as Quinoa Villages, as well as towns with two or more neighborhood units, were grouped into provinces The empire as a whole was divided into four quarters, with the capital, Cuzco, at the center Inca's clothing were made out of alpacas or llamas Men wore loincloths and sandals Women wore long dresses and draped square shawls and sandals Society was determined by social rank A man's status could be changed by doing outstanding service for the emperor Men of noble rank could have more than one wife Inca children had little time to play Sons of nobility went to school for 4 years in Cusco They studied language, history, and religion Incas produced a lot of crafts Marriage was within the neighborhood Articrafts Inca Artifacts were made of gold and other precious metals. The Inca people were skilled craftsmen
They made jewelry, masks, pottery, tapestries, musical instruments, baskets, and other crafts. The Inca empire had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labor.
There were many languages, cultures, and peoples involved. They started as a tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Gold was reserved for the highest class of Inca society such as priests, lords and the Sapa Inca or emperor. The finest textiles were made in the convents connected with the Temples of the Sun, by the chosen women, who were trained in this difficult art. Local leaders wore jewelry the most. Percussion and wind instruments date back to Inca or pre-Inca times. The Incas had wars with other civilizations in the area.
The Inca army was the most powerful at the time. Weapons Instruments Textiles Pottery Jewelry The Fall of the Inca Empire In their quest for gold and silver, the conquistadors would melt down countless examples of Inca metalwork. Spanish conquerers captured the Inca emperor in 1532 and began to break up the empire While some aspects of Inca civilization would remain after the Spanish conquest, most of it would pass into myth But the people of Peru never forgot their Inca heritage Many, even now, believe that a new Inca King will someday arise to restore the glory of their ancestors The Incas believed that gold was the sweat of the sun.
Gold was only valued when it was used to create ceremonial objects, such as containers and jewelry, or when it was used to adorn tombs and temples. Many of the religious ceremonies centered on agriculture: the growing and harvesting of crops and on curing illnesses. Sometimes the Inca sacrificed animals or even people to the gods, especially the god of the sun. Sacrifices (capacocha ritual) were also made following certain events like earthquakes or the death of an emperor. Food was prepared very easily in the Incan empire. They usually roasted or boiled the food. They normally ate soups, stews, and bread made from maize.