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IDEALISM & EDUCATION

EDS578 Contemporary Philosophies of Education
by

Hilal Yanış

on 21 December 2012

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Transcript of IDEALISM & EDUCATION

HİLAL YANIŞ IDEALISM & EDUCATION Idealism is born out of Plato's "Theory of Ideas." According to this doctrine, the ultimate supremacy is of ideas. In this way, the real word is 'ideaism' but adding the letter "1" of pronunciation facility it is known as Idealism. SOCRATES (469-399 B.C.E) Dialectic (Socratic Method): A method of reasoning in which the conflict or contrast of ideas is utilized as a means of detecting the truth. In Hegel's formulation of it there are three stages: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.

Sophist: A Sophist (Ancient Greek: , Latin: sophista) was a specific kind of teacher in both Ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics.

Greek philosopher
The Republic and Laws
Plato - the Academy, where students and professors engaged in a dialectical approach to problems. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Idealists believe that ideas are the only true reality. It is not that all idealists reject matter (the material world); rather, they hold that the material world is characterized by change, instability, and uncertainty, whereas some ideas are enduring; thus, idea-ism might be a more correct descriptive term for this philosophy. IDEALISM Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article In the Republic: the separation of the world of ideas from the world of matter, perfect society ruled by philosopher-kings. The world of ideas (or forms) has the Good as its highest point—the source of all true knowledge. The dialectic looks at both sides of an issue (War is Evil, War is good). Dialectic crosses the "divided line" between matter and idea. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article E.g. Allegory of Cave

steep ascent: dialectic
Sun: Good

"Doctrine of Reminiscence" : Socrates, who spoke of himself as a midwife who found humans pregnant with knowledge, but knowledge that had not been born or realized.

Plato suggested that the state must take an active role in educational concerns and offer a curriculum that leads intelligent students from concrete data toward abstract thinking. Plato’s idea was that the philosopher-king must be not only a thinker but also a doer.

Plato’s philosopher-king would be not only a person of wisdom, but also a good person. Philosophizing about the arts in Western culture began with Plato. Plato discussed painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, dance, and music. RELIGIOUS IDEALISM In Judaism and Christianity, the idea of one God as pure Spirit and the Universal Good can be readily recognized as compatible with this philosophy. AUGUSTINE (354-430 C.E.) Augustine connected the philosophy of Platonists and Neoplatonists, like Plotinus, with Christian beliefs.

City of God and the City of Man as divisions of the universe (Plato’s schemata of the World of Ideas and the World of Matter).


In Plato’s philosophy, the soul has knowledge that is obscured by being imprisoned in the body. In Augustine’s interpretation, the soul is blackened by Adam’s fall from grace, which results in human doubt and uncertainty. World of God is the world of Spirit and the Good; the World of Man is the material world of darkness, sin, ignorance, and suffering.

Augustine believed that one should, as much as possible, release oneself from the World of Man and enter into the World of God. Promote intuitive approach to education
Support dialectical method of learning

Augustine believed that worldly knowledge gained through the senses was full of error. Only through reason supplemented by faith could one enter the realm of true ideas.



Learning must come from within, and all true knowledge ultimately comes from God. So, one cannot teach another. Church's truths

To Plato, ultimate reality is Idea and our bridge to it is the mind. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, ultimate reality is God and our bridge to it is the soul (Idea and God, mind and soul). 3. DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN IDEALISM 15th and 16th century: identified with systematization and subjectivism RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650 C.E) Contribute to Idealism, realism and other thought system

Discourse on Method, Meditations on First Philosophy. Discourse: “methodical doubt" Cartesian first principle: Cogito, ergo sum, "I think, therefore I am." Cogito is indubitable Any particular idea or thought depends on other ideas. (triangle without angle, degree, line) The cogito and the Deity: Finite mind contemplates objects of thought founded in God (in Platonic terms, human mind contemplates the ultimate reality of ideas). For Descartes, the way he arrived at his principles—his method of analysis—brought new life to philosophy. GEORGE BERKELEY (1685-1753 C.E) Principles of Human Knowledge

Berkeley contended that all existence depends on some mind to know it; if no minds exist, then for all intents and purposes nothing exists unless it is perceived by the mind of God.

Berkeley was attacking a central tenet of philosophical realism—that a material world exists independent of mind. A thing exists means that it is perceived by some mind—esse est percipi (to be is to be perceived). There is no existence without perception, but things might exist in the sense that they are perceived by a Supreme Being. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article DAVID HUME (1711-1776)

Antagonist to the ideas of Berkeley IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804 C.E.) Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason (to bring order to the divergent and warring philosophical camps of rationalism and empiricism) Rationalism: They sought universal truths or ideas. They distrusted sense perception because its results are so individualized and erratic.

Empiricism: They held to the immediate perceptions of experience because these are practical and connected with everyday life. The rationalist, he held, thinks analytically, whereas the empiricist thinks synthetically. He worked out a system based on a posteriori (synthetic) and a priori (analytic) logical judgments that he called synthetic a priori judgments in order to reach a rapprochement with science and philosophy. A posteriori: Knowledge which is based upon experience and observation

A priori: Knowledge which is self-evident. Principles which, when once understood, are recognized to be true and do not require proof through observation, experience, or experiment. Search for border and validity of knowledge and how the knowledge emerged.

Knowledge from subject and object

Mind is only conscious of the experience (the phenomenon, the aspect of the thing-in-itself). The thing-in-itself Kant called the noumenon. Each experience (phenomenon) of a thing is
one small, additional piece of knowledge about the total thing (noumenon). Thus, all we know is the content of experience. Kant explored the moral and ethical realm primarily in Critique of Practical Reason. Real knowledge is possible.

He united apparently opposing themes, such as phenomenon and noumenon, the practical and the pure, and subjectivity and objectivity. Kant maintains that our understanding of the external world had its foundations not merely in experience, but in both experience and a priori concepts, thus offering a non-empiricist critique of rationalist philosophy, which is what he and others referred to as his "Copernican revolution". In Critique of Pure Reason, the result ends up close to Hume’s skepticism because Kant found it impossible to make absolutely universal and necessary judgments about human experience purely on rational and scientific grounds.

In his Critique of Practical Reason, Kant switched gears and went to the practical side—to moral and ethical dimensions—where he thought universal judgments could and
should be made. Importance of character development in education Kant’s idealism in his concentration on thought processes and the nature of the relationship between mind and its objects on the one hand and universal moral ideals on the other. Even though his attempts to bring about a “Copernican revolution" in philosophy failed, his systematic thought has greatly influenced all subsequent Western philosophy. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (1770-1831 C.E.) Logic, nature, and spirit
Phenomenology of mind, Logic, and Philosophy of right Hegel maintained that his logical system, if applied rigorously and accurately, could arrive at Absolute Idea (Plato's notion of unchanging ideas).

Hegel was sensitive to change. Change, development, and movement are all central and necessary in Hegel’s logic.
To Hegel, Nature is the “otherness” of Idea—its opposite. He did not view Idea and Nature as absolutely separate. There must be a final synthesis. The final stage or synthesis of Idea and Nature is Spirit, and this is where the final Absolute is encountered. Hegel’s idealism is most apparent—the search for final Absolute Spirit.

One major feature of the Hegelian system is movement toward richer, more complex, and more complete syntheses. Influence on the philosophy as well as the theory of education Hegel thought that it was possible (if not always probable in every case) for at leastsome individuals to know everything essential in the history of humanity’s collective consciousness. JOSIAH ROYCE (1855-1916 C.E.) Royce maintained that the external meaning of a thing depends entirely on its internal meaning—that is, "its embodiment of purpose.”

Royce, like most idealists, believed his philosophical views corresponded closely with religious teachings (the Christian religion.

Royce believed that ideas are essentially purposes or plans of action and that the fulfillment of ideas is found when they are put into action. Thus, purposes are incomplete without an external world in which they are realized, and the external world is meaningless unlless it is the fulfillment of such purposes.
Teaching people not only about the purposes of life but also about how they can become active participants in such purposes. Coleridge, Wordsworth, Caryle, Ruskin Thomas Hill Green, Francis Herbert Bradley, Ralph Waldo Emerson IDEALISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Notable idealist educator: Bronson Alcott Only the spiritual is real and material things are illusions of the senses. Masonic Temple in Boston (1834) He advocated feminism, denounced slavery, and believed in the innate goodness of people.

He used a conversational method of teaching that encouraged children to discuss moral problems openly.

Conversations with Children on the Gospels

Alcott put great weight on the intuitive knowledge of children and believed that the most important goal in education was character building. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article The philosophical position of idealism is that:

1. Reality is essentially mental and spiritual and not physical.

2. Nothing is real except that which exists in the mind.

3. Ultimate reality lies in a realm transcending phenomena.

4. The essential nature of reality lies in consciousness or reason.

5. Actions should attempt to approximate some preexistent idea of right conduct. IDEALISM AS A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Notable idealist educator: Bronson Alcott

Masonic Temple in Boston (1834)

He advocated feminism, denounced slavery, and believed in the innate goodness of people.

Used a conversational method of teaching that encouraged children to discuss moral problems openly.

Conversations with Children on the Gospels

Alcott put great weight on the intuitive knowledge of children and believed that the most important goal in education was character building. AIMS OF EDUCATION What they want in society is not just the literate, knowledgeable person, but the good person as well. SEARCH FOR TRUTH Plato thought that truth cannot be foundin the world of matter because such a world imparmanent and ever changing. In Plato's view, philosophical wisdom, or the conception of true ideas , is the highest aim of education.

Idealists always have stressed the importance of mind over matter. Some idealists, such as Berkeley, reject the idea that matter exists by itself, whereas others, like Agustine, take the position that matter might exist.
Platonic idealists maintain that a proper education should include examining such areas as art and science, which, in turn, could lead the student to the more speculative and abstract subjects of mathematics and philosophy.

According to Augustine, the search for truth is a search for God, and a true education leads one to God. Because God is pure idea.

According to some idealist, there might be many truths and levels of truth (Kant- pure reason and practical reason, Hegel- truth in something in development, moving from the simple to richer and more complex ideas). "Education is the awakening of life to the sublime realities and meanings of existence. Education is the awakening to the life of God in the soul of man, involving praise, prayer and worship." Idealists conceive of people as thinking beings who have minds capable of seeking truth through reasoning. Plato believed that the lowest kind of thinking should be called mere opinion. The important point is to direct our thinking toward more universal concepts. SELF-REALIZATION According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of God. Hence, the advocates of Idealism lay great stress on the self realisation. Self-realisation involves full knowledge of the self.

J. Donald Butler, a twentieth-century educator, analysis of the problem, in Idealism in Education, indicates that self lies at the center of idealist metaphysics and at the center of idealist education. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Descartes placed the thinking self at the base of his metaphysical schema and his methodological search with his famous cogito : “I think, therefore I am.” Some scholars date modern subjectivism from this development.
Berkeley further developed the notion of subjective reality. Berkeley’s notion was that things do not even exist unless perceived by the subjective individual mind or the mind of God. The relationship of the part to the whole or the symbiotic relationship of the self to society. Hegel held that the individual must be related to the whole because only in the setting of the total relationship can the real significance of a single individual be found. This led Hegel to assert that individuals find their true meaning in being in a society, in serving the community or the state. Horne maintained that education is an account of people finding themselves as an integral part of a universe of mind.

Teacher’s role is to guide the learner along the correct paths toward the infinite. This calls for the teacher to be a well-informed person and one who has the knowledge and personal qualities.

Horne, education should encourage the “will to perfection”
for the student and is an activity whereby one shapes oneself into the likeness of God— a task that requires eternal life for its fulfillment.

Gentile, the individual is not only a part of a community of minds but is also connected with the mind of God; hence, all education is religious education. Gentile maintained that one primary function of education is to open the soul to God.

Harris, human development and education are series of dialectical experiences.

Maslow's pyramide: Healthy individuals, Maslow, seek to move up the ladder of needs in order to achieve their full potential. CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT Kant made reason not God, the source of moral law; consequently, the only thing morally valuable is a good will. People who have a good will know what their duty is.

The proper function of education, then, is to educate people to know and do their duty.

The education of character includes not only a sense of duty but also the development of willpower and loyalty.

Gentile emphasized the development of loyalty as an important aspect of character education. Hegel and Gentile thought that the destiny of the individual is tied to the destiny of society, consequently, it is necessary for the individual to have a strong sense of loyalty to the state. 2. METHODS OF EDUCATION Dialectic: Critical method of thinking (Republic)

Abelard’s famous Sic et Non was a way of looking at both sides of the question and allowing the truth to emerge.

Intuition and revelation
Conceptual method includes both the dialectic and the intuitive approach to learning. Plato held that one does not learn as much from nature as from dialogues with other people.

Importance of teacher

Lecture method

Idealists: Purpose of a lecture is to help students comprehend ideas. Idealists also use such methods as projects, supplemental activities, library research, and artwork. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article 3. CURRICULUM Education at any level (Jean Piaget)

Inadequacy of materials 4. ROLE OF TEACHER The teacher should not only understand the various stages of learning but also maintain constant concern about the ultimate purposes of learning.

In questioning and discussion sessions during which the dialectic operates, the teacher can help students see alternatives they might otherwise have missed.

The idealist-oriented teacher would seek to have Socratic characteristics (discussion) and would encourage students to better their thinking and their lives on the basis of such thinking.

The teacher’s duty is to encourage students to ask questions and to provide a suitable environment for learning.
School should seek to develop, and most idealists, whether religious or not, have a deep feeling about the individual’s inner powers (such as intuition), which must be accounted for in any true education.




Augustine thought that truth is inherent in the soul of the individual. Education is the process of bringing these truths to the surface, and because many of these truths are directly related to God, according to many religious realists, education can also be a process of salvation. Thus, education can be performed through the dialectic, contemplation, intuition, and other ways to bring out truths already possessed by the soul. CRITIQUE OF IDEALISM IN EDUCATION Strength of idealism:

The high cognitive level of education that idealists promote.

Their concern for safeguarding and promoting cultural learning.

Their great concern for morality and character development.

Their view of the teacher as a revered person central to the educational process.

Their belief in the importance of self-realization.

Their stress on the human and personal side of life.

Their comprehensive, systematic, and holistic approach. Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Weakening idealism: Education for the upper class of society Leans toward intellectual eliticism Historical decline of the influence of traditional religion Emphasis on newness as opposed to cultural heritage Renewed vigor of realism and naturalistic philosophies Developments in science Industrialization and technological advances Idealist curriculum lacks relevance

Idealists give more attention to the development of character

Students should thought to be conform to general standards

Students willing to accept ready made ideas

Gentile and Royce- concept of loyalty might be socially useful in some cases, it could also be harmful when it encourages the learner to submerge all questioning and intellectual independence with regard to concepts involving church, state, family, or school

Absoluteness of idealism

Discouraging a search for new ideas PLATO (427–347 B.C.E.) Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article Weakening idealism: Education for the upper class of society Leans toward intellectual eliticism Historical decline of the influence of traditional religion Emphasis on newness as opposed to cultural heritage Renewed vigor of realism and naturalistic philosophies Developments in science Industrialization and technological advances Idealist curriculum lacks relevance

Idealists give more attention to the development of character

Students should thought to be conform to general standards

Students willing to accept ready made ideas

Gentile and Royce- concept of loyalty might be socially useful in some cases, it could also be harmful when it encourages the learner to submerge all questioning and intellectual independence with regard to concepts involving church, state, family, or school

Absoluteness of idealism

Discouraging a search for new ideas Development of Idealism
1. Platonic Idealism
Plato
2. Religous Idealism
Augustine
3. Modern Idealism
Descartes
Berkeley
Kant
Friedrich Hegel
Royce

Idealism as a Philosophy
of Education

1. Aims of Education
Search for Truth
Self-Realization
Character Development
2. Methods of Education
3. Curriculum
4. Role of the Teacher

Critique of Idealism in Education

Article THE CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHICAL EDUCATION
Steinar Bøyum The concept of philosophical education

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, Ren´e Descartes’s life of doubt, and Immanuel Kant’s criticism of metaphysics as paradigms or defining examples of this concept

To investigate the concept of philosophical education is to investigate the educational significance of philosophy

Philosophical education might concentrate either on (educative) consequences of philosophizing or on (educative) processes in philosophizing

First refers to external accounts, as they refer to effects extricable from philosophy — that is, to things that might be brought about by other means than philosophy.

Second refers to internal accounts, as they refer to aspects inextricable from philosophy — that is, to things that cannot be realized by any other means than philosophy


External and internal accounts differ in how they relate to the question of what philosophy is

An external account takes for granted a certain conception of philosophy and attempts to determine the empirical consequences of doing it.

In an internal account, however, a conception of philosophical education is seen as internally related to a conception of the nature of philosophy so that a certain activity will not count as philosophy (in the preferred sense) if it does not impart that kind of education.
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