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Transcript of Arrhythmia
Too quickly (trachycardia)
Too slowly (bradycardia)
or otherwise in an irregular pattern (in beats per minute). A normal heart's electrical conduction system:
Action potential reaches the atrioventricular (AV) node, at the floor of the right atrium Common symptoms of an arrhythmia:
palpitations (although heart palpitations don’t always mean arrhythmias)
pounding of the chest
dizziness (trachycardia) Ventricular arrhythmias
Bradyarrhythmias High Blood pressure
Coronary artery disease
Tissue scarring on the heart
Electric shock Causes Diagnosis Treatments Background A normal heartbeat is about 60 to 100 beats per minute. Hyperthyroidism
Caffeine / alcohol
Supplements Because arrhythmia’s can be silent, they are very hard to detect. Most physicians can detect an arrhythmia during a physical exam, when taking a heartbeat or pulse. Doctors can also use an ECG, or electrocardiogram. Various other methods of diagnosis are event monitors (smaller than holter monitors), exercise stress tests, and cardiac catheterization.
Some miniscule cases require no treatment at all, while some require medications and surgery. Some arrhythmias are treated with anti-arrhythmia medications such as beta blockers, digitalis, and calcium channel blockers. More invasive procedures include the insertion of catheters and implantation devices (pacemakers). Diagnosis References Treatments Treatments The Sinoatrial node, a cluster of cardiomyocytes, starts the action potential through pumps and channels...
1. Sodium ion inflow
2. Depolarization: Calcium ion inflow
3. Repolarization: Potassium ion outflow Current Research Finally, the impulse runs through the Purkinje fibers, and contractile cells in the ventricles are depolarized. By Adela Pilav and Logan Cahoon
• Ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation can both be treated with an IDC (implantable cardioverter defibrillator)-non-invasive.
• A pacemaker can be surgically implanted near the collarbone to act as a hearts normal pacemaker (restores slow heart rate).
• Radiofrequnecy ablation uses high frequency radio waves to destroy the pathways of an arrhythmia. •Ventricular resection involves a surgeon removing the area in the heart's muscle where the arrhythmia starts.
•Maze surgery is recommended if you encounter atrial fibrillation, incisions are made in the atrium to block the stimuli that cause atrial fibrillation. The impulse slowly leaves the right atrium, allowing the atria to contract
The impulse speeds down the interventricular septum via the atrioventricular bundle •A cardiac catheterization
•A Tilt-table exam Davis, D. (1997). Differential diagnosis of arrhythmias / Dale Davis. Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders, c1997.
Marieb, E., Mitchell, S. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, 10th ed.; McGraw-Hill: San Francisco, 2009.
Kass, R. S., & Clancy, C. E. (2006). Basis and Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias. Springer.
McKinley, M., et al. Anatomy & Physiology, An Integrative Approach, 1st ed.; McGraw-Hill: 2012.
Tsiperfal, A. et al. Arrhythmia Management: A Practical Guide for Nurses and Allied Professionals; Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.: 2007.
Wagoner, D., Nerbonne, J. Molecular Basis of Electrical Remodeling in Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. June 2000, Pages 1101–1117.
Walraven, G. (1999). Basic arrhythmias / Gail Walraven. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Brady, c1999. The AV node and Purkinje fibers can take over when the SA node is defective, but they create slower impulses. Electrophysiological remodeling of ion channels and pumps - canine and rat hearts are primary subjects of study to understand the functioning of ion handling protons.
Antiarrhythmic drugs help against channel blockage, thus allowing the SA node to create effective action potentials.