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Transcript of Teaching Pronunciation
History and Scope of Pronunciation Teaching
Factors to consider for the effective teaching of pronunciation.
Systems of the Language
Methods and Approaches for teaching and learning pronunciation. Celce-Murcia, M. (1996).
Depends on the learner's ability to listen to and imitate the rhythms and sounds of the target language without the intervention of any explicit information.
it gained popularity in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Pronunciation is taught through intuition and imitation.
Ss' do their best to approximate the model through imitation and repetition.
A period of learning solely to listening before any speaking is allowed.
the initial focus on listening without pressure to speak gives the learners the opportunity to internalize the target sound system.
when learners speak later on, their pronunciation is supposedly quite good despite they never have received explicit pronunciation instruction.
it is utilized information and tools such as a phonetic alphabet, articulatory descriptions, charts of the vocal opparatus, contrastive information, etc. it explicitly informs the learner of and focuses on the sounds and rhythms of the target language.
it made possible different linguistic or analytic contributions to the teaching of pronunciation.
it was influenced greatly by phoneticians such as Henry Sweet and Paul Passy, who formed the International Phonetic Association in 1886.
The international Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was developed.
The 1940s and 1950s
Development of Audiolingualism in the United States and of the Oral approach in Britain.
Pronunciation is very important and is taught explicitly from the start.
The teacher makes use of information from phonetics, such as a visual transcription system.
The Teacher uses a technique derived from contrastin structural linguistics:
Minimal pair drill
Did you at
on the floor.
on the floor.
Is that a black
Is that a black
Contrast across two sentences
Contrast within a sentence
It viewed language as rule governed behavior rather than habit formation.
it deemphasized pronunciation in favor of grammar and vocabulary.
The silent way method
Characterized by the attention paid to accuracy of production of both the sounds and the structures of the target language.
Learner's attention focuses on how words combine in phrases.
How blending, stress, and intonation shape the production of an utterance.
The teacher speaks as little as possible using gestures to indicate what Ss' should do.
Community Language Learning
Is a method developed by Charles A. Curran (1976)
Students sit around a table with a tape recorder-a key tool of the method.
The teacher stands behind one of the students, with hands on the student's shoulder.
after speaking reassuringly, the teacher asks the Ss to say something in the native language he or she wishes to be able to say in the target language.
this sentence is provided, broken into chunks, by the teacher in the target language.
Ss' repeat, once the Ss' can reproduce the whole utterance fluently, it is recorded on tape
The primary purpose of language is communication.
Proponents of this approach have not dealt adequatly with the role of pronunciation in language teaching.
How can teachers improve the pronunciation of unintelligible speakers of english so that they become intelligible?
Techniques to teach pronunciation as part of the Communicative Approach
Listen and Imitate
Students listen to a teacher-provided model and repeat or imitate it. This technique has been enhanced by the use of language labs and video recorders.
Use of articulatory descriptions, articulatory diagrams and a phonetic alphabet.
Minimal pair drills
It help students to distinguish between similar and problematic sounds in the target language.
Contextualized minimal pairs
The teacher establishes the setting and presents key vocabulary, students are trained to respond to a sentence stem with the appropriate meaningful response (a or b).
Enhancement of the teacher's description of how sounds are produced by audiovisual aids such as pictures, props, realia, etc.
A technique from speech correction strategies for native speakers e.g. "She sells seashells by the seashore"
Developmental approximation drills
Speakers are taught to retrace the steps that many english-speaking children follow as they acquire certain sounds in their first language.
Practice of vowel shift and stress shift related by affixation
A technique based on rules of generative phonology used with intermediate or advanced learners.
Passages or scripts for learners to practice and then read aloud, focusing on stress, timing, and intonation.
Recordings of learner's production
Audio and videotapes of rehearsed and spontaneou speech, free conversations, and role plays.
Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology. Nunan (1999)
Segmental phonology: individual sounds of the language.
Suprasegmental phonology: stress, rhythm, intonation patterns in language.
In language teaching at the level of segmental phonology tasks are designed that help learners discriminate and produce words that differ only in a single contrasting sound. (minimal pairs)
“teaching isolated forms of sounds and words fails to address the fact that, in communication, many aspects of pronunciation are determined by the positioning of elements within long stretches of speech” (Pennington and Richards, 1986)
Why do learners make pronunciation errors?
A particular sound may not exist in the mother tongue.
A sound does exist in the mother tongue, but not as a separate phoneme. Penny Ur (1996)
The teaching of pronunciation is not exclusively a linguistic matter. Wong (1987).
We need to take into consideration some important factors such as:
Exposure to the target language
Amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction
Lateralization: The assigning of certain functions to the different hemispheres of the brain is completed.
Critical period: biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquire. (Brown 1987:42)
Exposure to the target language
Learners acquire language primarily from the input they receive and they must receive large amounts of comprehensible input before they are required to speak. Krashen (1982).
Teachers should try to maximize students' exposure to the target language, and to encourage them to expand their own domains of linguistic competence.
Amount and Type of prior pronunciation instruction
Teachers need to examine the amount and type of prior pronunciation instruction students have had.
Integrative motivation: A desire to be socially integrated in the target culture.
Assimilative motivation: A desire, of the learner, to become an indistinguishable member of the target speech community.
Instrumental motivation: An individual learns a second language to attain a certain goal such as a job for example.
What does teaching pronunciation involve?
- The sounds of the language
- Stress and rhythm
The role of the Native Language
It is necessary to consider the learners' native language in deciding on pronunciation priorities.
Read each sentence twice, choosing one of the alternative words. Ask the students to mark the word they hear.
1.- There was something wrong with the
is very good.
3.- It was his good
that kept the money safe.
Listening to accents
Identifying elements of foreign pronunciation
Stage 1: Preparing materials
Stage 2: Analysis
Stage 3: Pooling and comparing
Stage 4: Drawing conclusions
Pronunciation and spelling
In most languages certain letters are pronounced in certain ways and variations are governed by consistent rules. However, there are some languages where there are many exceptions to such rules.
Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge University Press.
Lightbow, P., Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned (Third Edition). Oxford University Press.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston, Massachusetts USA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.
Penny, U. (1996). A course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.