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silent coder

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Femtochemistry

Ahmed Zewail Born: Feburary 26, 1946 Ahmed Hassan Zewail Damanhour, Kingdom of Egypt Nationality: Egyptian American Field of Study: Chemistry Worked at California Institute of Technology Awards Franklin Medal
(1998) 1999 2011 Bachelor's Degree MS Degree University of Alexandria PhD University
of Pennsylvania Post-Doctral
Fellowship University of
California Member of PCAST(Presidential Council of Advisors on Science and Technology) An Advisory Group of:
Leading Top Scientists & Engineers
Advice & Formulate Policy in the area of-
Innovation Academic Career Femtochemistry What is Femtochemistry? Area of Physical Chemistry Chemical Reactions Extremely Short Timescale 1 Femtosecond = 0.000000000000001s Femtochemistry allows us to study the transitions of chemical reactions. Allows exploration of which chemical reactions take place and investigate why some reactions occurs, but not others. Pump-Probe Spectroscopy Two or more optical pulses with variable time delay are used to investigate the process of chemical reactions. First Pulse: breaking bond or exciting one of the reatants. Second Pulse: used to interrogate the reaction after certain time. 10^−15 is to a second as a
second is to 32 million years. WORLD'S FASTEST CAMERA How Fast are Chemical Reactions? Ex: Compare a rusting nail and exploding dynamites. Chemical Reactions can take place at varying velocities. Velocities increase as the temperature rises: when molecular motion becomes more violent. IMAGINE!!!! Hundred years of research Svante Arrhenius (1903) inspired by: van't Hoff(1901) Came up with simple formula for reaction speed as function of temperature. H. Eyring and M. Polanyi (1930's) Formulated a Theory Transition State would occur very rapidly,
to perform an experiment over such short time would be impossible. That's what Dr. Zewail set out to do 1980 Involves High-Speed camera to image molecules in the actual course of chemical reactions and trying to capture pictures of them just in the transition state. First Experiment ICN -->I + CN Dr. Zewail was able to observe transition state exactly when I-C bond was about to break; took place in 200 femtoseconds = 2e-13s. This method allows us to witness the entire process of reactions, including the transition state. In Future, femtochemistry will allow scientists to control the reactions, as they will be able to develop more efficient products.

This will help us create better products in
Biological Field. Control over Assembly Line Final Product A Chemist’s View of Nature Chemistry is all about Motion
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