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HAD - Gustav Klimt

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Yi Wen

on 12 July 2013

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Transcript of HAD - Gustav Klimt

History Art & Design
The Association of Visual Artists Vienna Secession
To every age its art
To the arts its freedom
14 Jul 1862 - 6 Feb 1918
Trainings
Titian, a leading painter of the Venetian school in sixteenth century Italy.
Peter Paul Rubens, a 17th-century Baroque artist who painted richly-toned allegories, history cycles, and religious scenes.


Trainings
Klimt paid homage to his studies of works by Titian from his training with his version of Danae in 1907.
Danaë with Nursemaid By Titian, 1553-1554
Gustav Klimt‘s version of Titian’s Danae in 1907
Trainings
Klimt deeply admired of Makart and was heavily influenced by him with the use of historicism style during his early years.
His technique employed dramatic effects of light and an evident love for theatricality and pageantry.
While still a student, Klimt bribed Makart's servants to let him into the painter's studio to study his latest works in progress.
The young artist was fascinated not so much by the rococo resonances in Makart's work as by his truly baroque exuberance in decoration and figural depiction.
Hans Makart (1840 - 1884)
Klimt's early style is based on historicism.
Clear similarities to Makart's paintings.
Primacy of sexual symbolism in Jugendstil artworks were influenced by the sensuality in many of Makart's paintings.
Influenced by Hans Makart
Modern Amoretti
The Five Senses
Gustav Klimt's
Titans'
Neoclassicism
Klimt's art style
Idylle (Idylls) (1884)
Style: Neoclassicism
Period: Early works

Style influenced by European Academies of Art
Born in a time where the style of art was inspired by the history and culture of Ancient Greece and Rome
Fable (1883)
Style: Neoclassicism
Period: Early works
His earliest paintings, “Fable (1883)”, saw Klimt giving woman a place to stay in his artworks.
At a young age, Klimt was able to create a painting, depicting the innocence and beauty of the female.
The Globe Theatre in London (1888)
Style: Neoclassicism
Period: Early works
Painted the fictional Romeo and Juliet, created by the famous English poet and playwright, William Shakespeare.
Showed a rare self portrait of the young Gustav Klimt.
Never have a habit of doing self-portraits.
Focus of artwork has always been on the subject of women.
Auditorium in the Old Burgtheater, Vienna (1888)
Style: Neoclassicism
Period: Early works
Klimt, his brother, Ernst Klimt and his friend, Franz Matsch, was commissioned to paint scenes from the history of the theatre to be hung in the Burgtheater (1886)
Art style of Klimt developed differently from that of his two friends.
He went on to supplement his classical motifs with realistic portraits.
Incorporate both the art styles of Neoclassicism and Realism in his painting.
Realism
Portrait of Joseph Pembauer (1890)
Style: Realism
Period: Early works
Adopting this new style, Realism, he went on to create paintings of photographic precision.
He painted portraits such which captured detailed facial features of his subjects, accompanied with features bordering on the hyperreal.
Portrait of a lady (1894)
Style: Realism
Period: Early works
(known as academic arts)
In 1892, both Klimt’s father and his brother, Ernst Klimt, died.

Had to assume

financial

responsibility.
Traumatized by their death, Klimt started to reject conservative ideas and began to explore a new style.
Move towards a new style of art
Death of Klimt's
family members
Art Nouveau
French [ar-noo-voh]
International philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied arts (decorative art)
Origin: William Morris in UK who intitiated the Art and Craft movement
Characteristic of art work: Natural motifs and ornamentation
Japonism (1880s-1890s) was popular with its organic forms and references to the natural world
Spread throughout the world to Germany, France, Austria etc.
The setting up of Vienna Secession
A New Direction ...
In 1894, Klimt was commissioned by Vienna University to create 3 inspiring ceiling panels
Serve as decoration for Great Hall of the University of Vienna.
World saw a major change in Klimt’s style, including sex, death and European spirits of Art Nouveau.
Paintings were eventually destroyed by the Nazis during WW2 in 1945
Jurisprudence (1903-1907)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden phase
Medicine (1900-1907)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Philosophy (1899-1907)

Style: Symbolism

Period: Golden Phase

The Reaction
University rejected all 3 of the paintings.
The public hated it, criticized it for their radical themes and material, and were often referred to as being ‘pornographic’ at that period of time.
However, Philosophy won appreciation and top prize in the Paris World Fair in 1900.
In response, Klimt drew Goldfish (1901 - 1902) to his critics.
“I had enough of censorship… I must now take things in my own hands.”

Klimt's Art Style
Symbolism
Portrayed traditional art and its symbolism into something that was overly sexual, erotic and even disturbing to others.

Majority of the people were unable to accept Klimt’s new art style, politically, aesthetically and religiously.

His artwork, “Nuda Veritas (1899)”, was created to go against the Viennese Establishment.

The painting went against all classical traditions of art.

Depicted expressive and provocative woman in her nakedness, challenging the norms of the Viennese public.

Her pubic hair suffices as a revolt against the classical ideal of beauty

Nuda Veritas (1899)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
“If you cannot please anyone with your deeds and your art, please only a few. To please many is bad.”
Klimt was clearly obsessed with the female form.
Tendency to create paintings where woman play the main protagonists of his pictures.
Floating and drifting around, depicting their sensuality and sexuality.
Painted women where they embrace their natural element, the waves.
Theme revolves around painting an entirely feminised world, a narcissistic worlds of lesbians loving each other in the flowing of watery dreams.
Moving Water (1898)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Fish Blood (1898)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase

Water Nymphs (1899)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Water Serpents II (1907)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase

Pallas Athene (1898)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase

Klimt’s father was a gold engraver.
Intensive knowledge of usage of the material.
Used gold in majority of his artwork during his ‘Golden Phase”.
His first artwork which made use of gold, “Pallas Athene (1898)”.
Use of ornamentation underlines the upmost necessity of erotic ingredient in his view of the world.
His use of gold started the Golden Phase in his art period.
Majority of his art pieces revolves around the use of any sort of gold.
Some of his famous artworks that incorporate the use of gold would be “Judith I (1901)”, “Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907)”, “Beethoven Frieze (1902)” and his most renowned art piece known worldwide, “The Kiss (1908)”.
Judith I (1901)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Klimt's art conveyed his messages and ideology.
Rarely explained his drawings, despite the hidden story that his paintings are able to.
Impression that he had on the world, with regards to aesthetic arts, politics, religion.
For the paintings, the only parts painted are their body parts, while the garments that they are wearing are being coated with gold.
Wanted people who came to look at his artwork, to focus on their hands and faces of the art piece.
The Kiss (1908)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Good commissions provided by the Viennese Establishment for his artworks.
Emperor Franz Josef declined his appointment of professor at the Academy.
Seeking an avenue to showcase his new style of art..
Took on a variety and combinations of art styles; Symbolism and Japonism.
Free to explore and experiment with different art styles, surface and symbolism.
Artworks during his secession years highly associated with themes such as sexuality, mortality and human frailty.
The Change
A group of young artists, including Carl Moll, Otto Wagner and Josef Hoffmann, wanted a breakthrough from the boring traditional art.
Asked Klimt to act as the president of Vienna Secession in 1897.
Klimt, who decided to go against the Viennese Establishment, agreed.
Aim to educate the public, elevate taste and elegance by bringing in international art
Showcase of fine and applied arts included paintings, sculptures, furnishings to interior architecture by Vincent van Gogh, Giovanni Segantini and Ausguste Rodin

Between 1898 to 1905, the Secession had organized 23 exhibitions.

Ver Sacrum
(Sacred Spring)
Monthly magazine published by the Secession
Total of 96 editions, between 1898 to 1903
Cover page: fountain of youth; page border: elements of Art Nouveau
In 1901, the public prosecuted to Vienna to destroyed the latest edition of Ver Sacrum to be found or seen anywhere.
Fortunately, the court neglected to destroy all the Klimt’s erotic sketches.
Beethoven Frieze
In April 1902, 14th exhibition by the Secession was held.

Celebration of Lugwig von Beethoven

Ninth Symphony was played at the entrance

Klimt drew Beethoven Frieze directly on the wall of the main room

Klimt’s interpretation of Ninth Symphony‘s: Yearning of Happiness, Hostile Force, Hymn to Joy

Controversy broke: visitors found it crude, immoral and disrespectful

Number of visitors fell significantly

Yearning for Happiness
Hostile Forces
Hymn to Joy
Klimt's art style
Symbolism
Italian Garden (1913)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Late works

Golden Phase
Forest of Firs (1901)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Beech Grove I (1902)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Pear Tree (1903)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase

Landscapes
Done in a standard size, with a square format
Felt that this format would allow engulfment of the subject in an atmosphere of peace.
Square format would allow the picture to become part of a universal whole.
Asides from genre of figure paintings, Klimt painted landscapes.
While Klimt painted some landscapes in the 1880s, it wasn’t until the late 1890s, when landscape became a consistent part of his repertoire.
Landscapes inspired from the annual summer holidays that he took with the Flöge family on the shores of Attersee.
No use of humans in his landscapes

Inferred as showing him treating the landscape as living beings.

Woman has always been the main focus in his art pieces, one can conclude that he treats his landscape like he treats his women.

Synthesized a range of influences, among them Japanese art, Van Gogh, Austrian landscape traditions, Cezanne, and his unique Viennese modernism, to create something entirely new and radical.

Roses under the tree (1905)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Fruit Trees (1901)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
End of Golden Phase
The beginning of the art style of Expressionism resulted in the end of Klimt’s Golden Phase.
Recognize that gold led to rigid stylization and made rendering all psychological expression impossible.
From this period on, no incorporation of any form of gold or ornamentation but instead adapted large monochrome areas in his works.
For a period of time, influenced by Henri Toulouse- Lautrec.
Black Feather Hat (Lady with Feather Hat) (1910)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Late Works
Old Woman (1909)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Late Works

Prefer more movement and more colour in his paintings as seen from his artworks in his later years. “The Virgin (1913)” and “Death and Life (1916)”.
Back to his style of symbolism.
Incorporated more colours in his artworks, dismissing the use of gold in his works.
Death and Life (1916)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Late Works
The Virgin (1913)

Style: Symbolism
Period: Late Works

Artworks still revolved around the same few themes.

Sexuality towards the female figures (The Virgin)

Mortality of the human race (Death and Life).

His rework of the famous “Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907)”, depicts the change in his art style, using colours and natural motifs to bring out his subject in his paintings.

Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer II (1912)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Late Works
Japonism
Influence of Japanese culture on the Impressionism period and Art Nouveau.
Adopted Japonism in artworks.
Japonism promoted the lack of perspective and shadow, the flat areas of strong colour, and the compositional freedom by placing the subject in the centre.
Artworks during the early 20th century were all vibrantly painted, accompanied by backgrounds showcasing Japanese related motifs; from flowers, animals, birds to oriental figures.
Portrait of Fredericke Maria Beer (1916)
Style: Japonism
Period: Late Works
Portrait of Baroness Elisabeth Bachofen-Echt (1916)

Style: Japonism
Period: Late Works

Eroticism
In the later part of his life, his style of art was diverted at eroticism.

Artworks were all related to women, in their naked state.

Pencil sketching of women standing nude, semi-nude or even lying down without clothing.

Sketches showed as though Klimt has made love to them before proceeding to sketch their portraits.

Facial expressions are those of post orgasm.

Art concentrated on the sensuality of the female species in their state of ‘happiness’.

Klimt never did enjoy doing paintings of man, he rather do paintings of woman.

Mandatory to include both the male and female figures in “Adam and Eve (1918)”.

Succeeded in making Adam, the decorative accessory to the painting and made Eve, headline as the star of the painting.

Use a technique observed in ancient vase painting, Klimt was able to paint him darker than the triumphant figure of Eve, making Eve stand out more in the painting.

Klimt past away in 1918, leaving a few paintings undone.
Unfinished portraits revealed Klimt’s working methods.
As seen from the undone portrait of “Portrait of a Lady, en face (1918, unfinished)”, Klimt worked on the face of the portrait first, and then followed by the accompanying décor of the portrait.
Another one of his unfinished portrait, “Portrait of Johanna Staude (1918, unfinished)”, might have shown Klimt’s new style in his art work, the influences he may have gotten from other artists.
However, his death (1918) left these questions unanswered.
Klimt's art style
The Legacy
Early Works

Studied Vienna School of Arts and Crafts
Learnt Academicism art style
Taught by Julius Victor Berger (1850 – 1902)

1876 - 1883
Influenced by
Julius Victor Berger
Klimt's early works focused on portraits, which was Berger's primary art genre.
Gustav Klimt's
Julius Victor Berger's
Portrait of a Girl, Head Slightly Turned Left, 1879
Italian girl with distaff
Impressed his instructors by displaying masterful gifts for painting life figures and for working with a variety of tools (brush and soft pencil).
His trainings included close studies of the works of Titian, Peter Paul Rubens, and Hans Makart, the most famous Viennese historical painter of the Ringstrasse Era.
Goldfish (1901)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Golden Phase
Klimt's art style
Adam and Eve (1918)
Style: Art Nouveau
Period: Late works
Portrait of a Lady, en face (1918, unfinished)
Style: Symbolism
Period: Late works
Portrait of Johanna Staude (1918, unfinished)
Style: Art Nouveau
Period: Late works
Egon Schiele (1890 – 1918)
In 1906, he studied in School of Arts and Crafts in Vienna
He got bored of the conservative art style taught in the school
Klimt invited him to exhibit in Kunstschau, 1909
Referred himself as “The Silver Klimt”
Stylized Flower (1908) was a piece that showed the huge influence Klimt had on Schiele - landscape format, art nouveau ornamentation, gold paint.
Stylized Flower (1908)
The Scornful woman (Gertrude Schiele), 1910
The Black Feather Hat, 1910
Gustav Klimt's
Egon Schiele's
Oskar Kokoschka (1886 – 1980)
Influenced heavily by Gustav Klimt and the Vienna Secession in his early career (particularly Klimt’s Beethoven Frieze)
Instrumental in furthering early career of Oskar.
Klimt sponsored Oskar’s exhibitions (Vienna Kunstschau) in 1908
His works in Kunstschau being too shocking or graphic to the public.
However, Klimt called Kokoschka the greatest talent of the young generation.
Kokoschka even dedicated his book “Die träumenden Knaben“ (The Dreaming Boys) , to Gustav Klimt.
Poster for the play: Murderer, the Hope of Women. It was held during the Kunstschau in 1909
Die träumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Boys), 1908
In 1903, Josef Hoffmann, Koloman Moser founded the Wiener Werkstätte (Vienna's workshop), showcasing the applied arts like jewellery, ceramics and furnitures.
14 June 1905: Klimt and his company dismissed the Vienna Secession for having different artistic concepts.
Klimt withdrew himself in his studio, supplying rich patrons with portraits who supported him financially.
Began focusing on his exploration of the "Golden Phase".
End of the Secession
References
wikipedia.org. (2011). Gustav Klimt. Available: http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/gustav-klimt. Last accessed 23th Jun 2013.
Creative Commons License. (2002). Egon Schiele - The Complete Works. Available: http://www.egon-schiele.net/. Last accessed 23th Jun 2013.
Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. (updated 2013). Oskar Kokoschka. Available: http://www.belvedere.at/en/sammlungen/belvedere/expressionismus/kokoschka. Last accessed 21th Jun 2013.
Gustav Klimt, uploaded 10 Sept 2007, online video, accessed 21th Jun 2013, <
Klimt - Private life of a Masterpiece (BBC Documentary), uploaded 28 Feb 2013, online video, accessed 21th Jun 2013, <
The Magic of Line: Gustav Klimt's Artistic Process, uploaded 26 Jun 2012, online video, accessed 20th Jun 2013, <
Gilles Néret (2003). Gustav Klimt, 1862-1918. Köln ; Los Angeles : Taschen.
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