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Application of Theory to Student Learning
Transcript of Application of Theory to Student Learning
Conditions of Learning (Gagne) There are multiple types and levels of learning in the classroom; with each type it requires different ways of instruction. Strategies & Theories: to improve learning for students with disabilities Non-Traditional Learning Environment The non-traditional learning environment is a special education classroom where there is more flexibility based on the students disabilities and the way they learn best. These learning environments typically have smaller class sizes. Advantages to students with disabilities: Traditional Classroom Active Contributors
Exposure to and knowledge of general education curriculum
Learn appropriate behaviors from peers Valued as a Unique Individual
Included, not isolated based on disability Opportunity to Relate to a Diverse Population
All types of people in society
Helps prepare students for a life beyond school and promote sensitivity and awareness of disabilities (Kids Together, Inc, 2010) Advantages to Students With Disabilities: Non-Traditional Classroom Disadvantages to Students with Disabilities: Traditional Classroom Teacher may not see the benefits of the student:
Negative impact on students, not feeling included
Teachers focus on the child's disability (Glazzard, 2011) Different Learning Environments Based on the Student:
“Many students with learning disabilities have learning needs substantially different in amount and kind from those of nondisabled children…The full time placement of all students with learning disabilities in total inclusion classrooms will certainly result in the failure of some to obtain an appropriate education or one from which they will benefit.” (Chow, Blais, Hemingway, 1999)
Cannot be a one size fits all approach. Resource Room:
Teachers in both regular and special education classes can collaborate
Students are included with their peers, not only during extracurricular activities (Idol, 2006). Teachers Are Knowledgeable of Disabilities:
Smaller classes allows opportunities to better understand the student individually.
Teachers can communicate to students, both orally and by actions, that they trust the student to take responsibility for their actions. (Shechtman, Leichtentritt, 2004) Non-Traditional Classroom Disadvantages to Students with Disabilities Negative Interaction:
Can cause stress on those students
Make it harder for them to focus and complete their work Harder Time Learning to Interact With Others:
Often the peers in a non-traditional learning environment are also socially immature, this makes it difficult for students to learn the correct response to social situations
The model set by peers is not a healthy model to follow (Little, Kobak, 2003) Applying Types of Learning Strategies:
a)Break learning into small steps
b)Use regular quality feedback
c)Use diagrams, graphics and pictures to augment what you were saying in words; d)Provide ample independent, well-designed, intensive practice Assessing individual students:
to monitor their progress through the curriculum Focus On... Individual Achievement, Progress and Learning. It provides opportunities for interacting with examples in different ways Gagne Theory Assists Students with Special Needs Through the use of reinforcement (both positive and negative) the theory effects individual attitudes in the classroom. Repetition of skills students gain along with useful feedback. Goal directed, giving individuals specific goals and objective for their learning Students with special needs all have individual goals that must be implemented which is why the Gagne theory helps students with special needs. Categories of Learning:
Attitudes 1. Gain Attention
2. Identify Objective- what is it?
3. Recall Prior Learning- review definitions
4. Present Stimulus- give actual definition
5. Guide learning- show examples
6. Elicit performance- ask students to create 5 different examples
7. Provide feedback- check all examples as correct/incorrect
8. Assess performance- provide scores and remediation
9. Enhance retention/transfer- show pictures of objects and ask students to identify what it is. Teaching Sequence: (related to cognitive process) Proposition 1: “NBPTs are dedicated to making knowledge accessible to all students. They believe all students can learn.” Relationship with NBPTS Proposition 3: “They know how to engage students to ensure a disciplined learning environment, and how to organize instruction to meet instructional goals." Educational Environments Proposition 3 "NBPTs deliver effective instruction. They move fluently through a range of instructional techniques, keeping student motivation, engaged and focused."
“They are able to use diverse instructional strategies to teach for understanding." Proposition 2 Strategies & Theories... e)Model instructional practices that you want students to follow
f)Provide prompts of strategies to use.
g)Engage students in process type questions like “How is that strategy working? Where else might you apply it?” Little, M., & Kobak, R. (2003). Emotional Security With Teachers and Children's Stress Reactivity: A Comparison of Special-Education and Regular-Education Classrooms. Journal Of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 127. Resources Merrill. (1997, 3 4). Gagngagné conditions of learning e. Retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/wxh139/gagne.htm Culatta, R. (2012). Instructional design. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/conditions-learning.html Shechtman, Z., & Leichtentritt, J. (2004). Affective teaching: a method to enhance classroom management. European Journal Of Teacher Education, 27(3), 323-333. doi:10.1080/0261976042000290822 Kids Together, Inc. Components of Inclusion Education. (2010). Retrieved at http://www.kidstogether.org/componentsofinclusion.htm Idol, L. (2006). Toward Inclusion of Special Education Students in General Education. Remedial & Special Education, 27(2), 77-94. Glazzard, J. (2011). Perceptions of the barriers to effective inclusion in one primary school: voices of teachers and teaching assistants. Support For Learning, 26(2), 56-63. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9604.2011.01478.x Chow, P., Blais, L., & Hemingway, J. (1999). An Outsider Looking In: Total Inclusion And The Concept Of Equifinality. Education, 119(3), 459. National board of professional teaching standards. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.nbpts.org/the_standards