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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN

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by

Andrea Iwarat

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN
PROTECTION
PATHOGENS
UV RAYS
provides the most effective barrier to epidermal
water loss and penetration of environmental factors such as chemicals,
microbes, and insect bites
KERATINOCYTES
dead keratinized cells that render the skin waterproof
- cell division
-melanin (brown pigment) - absorbs UV rays
SENSATION
primary functions of the receptors in the skin are to sense temperature, pain, light touch, and pressure (or heavy touch).
FLUID BALANCE
capacity to absorb water, thereby preventing an excessive loss
of water and electrolytes from the internal body and retaining
moisture in the subcutaneous tissues
FLUID BALANCE
Small amounts of water continuously evaporate from the skin surface. This evaporation, called insensible perspiration, amounts to approximately 600 mL daily in a normal adult.
THERMOREGULATION
(or tactile corpuscles) are a type of mechanoreceptor. They are a type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch
Sweat
shivering
Fat
Vasodilation/Vasoconstriction
allows the loss of heat by evaporation
Sweating does not occur until the core body temperature exceeds 37°C, regardless of skin temperature. In extremely hot environments, the rate of sweat production may be as high as 1 L per hour.
vessels located in the dermis, dilate to allow loss of excessive heat. Or constrict when conserving heat.
Immune Response
Langerhans cells play a significant role in cutaneous immune system reactions
These accessory cells of the afferent immune system process invading antigens and transport the antigens to the lymph system to activate the T lymphocytes.
The rate of sweat secretion is under the
control of the sympathetic nervous system.
VITAMIN D PRODUCTION
Skin exposed to ultraviolet light can convert substances necessary
for synthesizing vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
Full transcript