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Transcript of Cell Transport
Function: lets things in
and out of the cell
Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is reached
diffusion that occurs through proteins (called carrier proteins) in the cell membrane of molecules that would not normally be able to fit through the membrane.
secondary Active Transport
the movement of
molecules across the plasma
membrane that can occur against
a concentration gradient
and NEEDS ENERGY (from low concentration to high concentration)
OSMOSIS = the movement of WATER by DIFFUSION through a semipermeable membrane
from a region of low or no solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
concentration = how much solute there is
versus how much solvent
carrier-protein complexes form channels through which the diffusing molecules pass. The shape of the protein changes in response to the diffusing molecule allowing it to cross the membrane to the other side.
Many substances essential for cell survival are not soluble in lipids. Molecules such as sugars, and amino acids, and several important elements, such as K, Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, P, all of which are available to cells only as ions. Plasma membranes have specialized mechanisms that facilitate the movement of these vital ions into and out of cells.
Plant and animal cells tend to maintain low internal concentrations of sodium ions (Na+) and high internal concentrations of potassium ions (K+) in spite of the fact that the surrounding fluids are high in Na+ and low in K+.
SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP
-Na+/K+ pump works only if both ions are present
-K+ must be present on the outside of the cell and be pumped into the cell
-Na+ must be present on the inside of the cell and be pumped out of the cell
-pumps 3 Na+ out and brings in 2 K+ with every ATP used
Calcium ions (Ca+) are also transported across the plasma membranes of the skeletal muscle cells by a calcium pump. This helps in muscle contraction.
Co-transport also known as secondary Active Transport
When one trans-membrane protein uses ATP to move a solute "A" from low concentration to high concentration but that same solute "A" can then diffuse through a different trans-membrane protein and will "take" another solute "B" with it. Solute "B" will move against its concentration gradient.
This occurs because usually solute "A" is an ion that helps to build a concentration gradient that becomes the energy needed to transport solute "B".
Endocytosis - is the transport of LARGE molecules into the cell.
pinocytosis - when substances taken into a cell is a solution, such as a solution of nutrient substances.
phagocytosis - when substances taken in are particulate (solids), such as bacteria.
exocytosis - the transport of bulk materials out of the cell
solute - is dissolved by the solvent
solvent - dissolves/breaks down the solute
example - water (solvent) dissolves kool-aid (solute)
The transportation of molecules across a plasma membrane without using energy - molecules move from high to low concentration.
most times discussed in % concentration - totals always equal 100%
If there is 70% solvent then how much solute?
concentration gradient - a measurement of how the concentration of something changes as it moves from one place to another
Hyper=more (refers to solute amount)
solute outside the cell is higher
The solution the cell is in is hypertonic
Hypo = less (refers to the amount of solute)
solute outside the cell is less
The solution the cell is in is hypotonic