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Oralist Teachers Throughout History
Transcript of Oralist Teachers Throughout History
Italy John Bulwer 1614-1684 George Dalgarno 1626-1687 John Wallis 1616-1703 William Holder 1615-1697 Henry Baker 1698-1774 Georg Raphel 1673-1740 Otto Lasius 1752-1833 Johan Ludvig Ferdinand Arnoldi 1737-1783 1817 1500 Utilized writing and lipreading
Accepted gesturing when communicating
Goals of education:
-Read and write
-Speak intelligibly Taught by what was seen
Emphasized comprehension, not repetition
Used spelling glove Emphasis on speech
Hardly any work with writing and reading 1400 Rudolph Agricola 1433- 1485 Taught the Deaf to speak and write
Goal to have deaf be able to learn
(Eriksson 23) Jacob Rodriguez Pereira 1715-1780 Girolamo Cardano 1501-1576 Claude Francois Deschamps
1745-1791 Taught speech through pictures
Soon all attention to writing
Used Delgarno's manual alphabet
No emphasis on comprehension or understanding “Writing is associated
with speech and speech
with thought; but
and ideas may be
connected without the intervention of
(Eriksson 23-24) He changed the way people thought about the Deaf. (Eriksson 23) Thomas Braidwood 1715-1806 Juan Pablo Bonet 1579-1629 Encouraged people
to fingerspell or write with the
(Eriksson 31) Samuel Heinicke 1729-1790 Used phonics to teach speaking Jean Marc Itard 1775-1838 Francis Mercurius van Helmont 1618-1699 Abbe Sicard 1742-1822 Copied Amman's technique
Learned reading by sounding out individual letters
Taught writing after reading
Utilized speech and lipreading to communicate (Eriksson, 43) Believed that Hebrew would be the easiest language for deaf to learn
Used a book to show how the mouth should be shaped when speaking
(Eriksson, 33) Dieter Eschke 1766-1811 Johan Konrad Amman 1669-1724 Practiced medicine
Gave speech training
(Eriksson 35) Focused on voiced and unvoiced sounds and positioning of the vocal organs to speak (Eriksson 34) Emanuel Ramirez de Carrion 1579-1652 Spoke to the kids
Spread oil on shaved child's head to help them learn better
(Eriksson, 32) Oralist Teachers
By: Nicole Harris, Laura Twichel, Natalie Seegmiller Used the methods of Amman and Wallis.
Started speech training in the fourth or fifth year.
Focused on grammar and used biblical charts for religious instruction.
Stressed understanding more than memorization.
Concentrated on speech and conversation (Eriksson, 47).
Used sign to give instructions and converse with his pupils, until they could communicate orally or in writing (Lane, 73).
Used a modified version of Bonet’s handshapes (Eriksson, 47).
Heavily relied on fingerspelling, and used sign and writing for instruction.
Taught speech and then lip reading.
Used the methods of Holder and Wallis (Lane, 105-106).
Student’s learned language by writing and fingerspelling, then articulating the letters of the alphabet and finally pronouncing whole words (Eriksson, 51).
Used the Amman method and emphasized speech.
Utilized gestural communication, though he was opposed to sign.
Taught reading, writing, and the manual alphabet.
Believed that the Deaf students could pronounce vowels with the help of their taste buds.
(Eriksson, 38) (Dalgarno's Manual Alphabet, web) Citations Dalgarno Manual Alphabet. Wikipedia, 2006. Web. Used the methods of Bonet and Amman.
Believed in individualized instruction, training the student’s hearing, and awakening their senses.
Discouraged the use of sign language and supported the students using speech at all times.
(Lane, 105) Succeeded Samuel Heinicke and used the Amman method, emphasizing speech.
Taught reading, writing, and the manual alphabet, using gestures and writing to communicate.
Used different tastes to help students pronounce vowels.
(John Wallis, web) John Wallis. Wikipedia, 2011. Web. (Eriksson, 37) (Eriksson, 39) Technique to be applied, not individual
Utilized extensive signing system he claimed to have created
Emphasis on speech and writing
(Branson and Miller, 99-100) Branson, Jan, and Don Miller. "Damned for Their Difference: The Cultural Construction of Deaf People as Disabled". Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 2002. Web. "Biography Record: Otto Benjamin Lasius." Gallaudet University Library Guide to Deaf Biographies. Gallaudet University, n.d. Web. 2011. Utilized home signs from first student
Copied Amman and Rapheln's methods at first
Settled on John Wallis's method (speech taught by pictures, manual alphabet, etc.) Utilized gestures, writing and Epee’s methodical signs to teach language.
Employed a system of numbering the parts of speech in a sentence.
("Biography Record: Otto Benjamin Lasius," web) Eriksson, Per. "The History of Deaf People", SIH Larimedel learning Materials Division of National Swedish Agency for Special Ed, 1993 Lane, Harlan. When the Mind Hears. New York: Random House, Inc., 1984.