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Vocabulary PD Presentation
Transcript of Vocabulary PD Presentation
The Why, The What, The How
During reading strategies
While reading, students may identify difficult concepts, new vocabulary or unfamiliar reference words that need to be understood. It may be possible for the reader to clarify these unknown words independently, or assistance from a teacher may be necessary.
These strategies will allow the students to connect prior knowledge to new learning about vocabulary terms and ideas. Students can be asked to organize their words into categories or incorporate them into summaries to demonstrate understanding of concepts learned.
Why does teaching
Because each content area has a unique vocabulary, knowledge of vocabulary is a key indicator of how well students well comprehend the content (Billmeyer, 2006).
Before reading strategies
Focused on terms and ideas that are critical to the text.
In order for students to benefit from before-reading vocabulary instruction, connections or associations with other ideas from background knowledge, or schema, must be made.
Concept definition mapping
A strategy that can be used at any phase of reading. The student (or teacher) defines the word by explaining what it is and what it is not, giving examples and facts from the texts.
Act the Word
This strategy is particularly good for Tier Two words, especially strong verbs, that are encountered while reading the text. Examples might be "saunter" or "traipse".
There are two types of sorts:
- The students take the assigned words and categorize them into meaningful groups.
- The teacher provides the categories for the assigned words.
*Younger students can sort pictures representing key vocabulary.
Semantic Feature Analysis
In Semantic Feature Analysis, students are given a grid with vocabulary or terms listed vertically along the left side and features horizontally across the top. Students code each feature with a (+) if the word has the feature, a (-) if it does not, or a (?) if they are unsure. As students progress through the reading, they may change their codes to reflect comprehension and/or add new features and terms.
SAW - Student Action Words
Students self-select words they find interesting or intriguing
Encourages whole-brain learning
Students use an organizer to perform a series of steps:
Vocabulary Concept Chain
Connects prior knowledge to concepts learned and the vocabulary words relating to the new concept.
Students organize the vocabulary words into a concept chain.
Words are linked logically or sequentially and circularly to form the chain.
A final step can be having students write a summary sentence summarizing the chain and how it relates to the concept.
Wisconsin Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts.
(2010). Department of Public Instruction, 160. © 2012 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction -
What vocabulary needs
to be taught?
Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002, 2008) devised a model for categorizing words that readers encounter.
Educators have developed many strategies for teaching vocabulary. The following are some suggestions that could be used before, during, or after reading. Ultimately, the choice of which strategy to use and when to use the strategy will depend on the particular vocabulary to be taught, and, more importantly, the needs of the students.
How can vocabulary
Research tells us that most students will recall a new word only after six to twelve exposures (Wolfe & Nevills, 2004).
Vocabulary knowledge is not stored in our memories as definitions; vocabulary knowledge is a network of connected concepts (Project CRISS, 2012).
Increasing reading time is the most powerful strategy for increasing vocabulary learning. However, wide reading combined with explicit vocabulary instruction has been found to provide the best results (Baumann, Ware, & Edwards, 2007).
Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001).
Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement
. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Students work in small groups, with assigned or chosen roles of actor, director and coach. The group works together to brainstorm the best way to present the word.
The group members teach their word to the class. The director pronounces the word for the class, tells what it means, and instructs the rest of the class to act out the word.
- This would include Tier Three words and any other vocabulary the teacher deems as challenging and unfamiliar.
During reading, this can be done quickly with words that students or teacher identify that need clarification. Not all aspects of the map need to be completed comprehensively, however the key sections of what it is and what it is not must be filled in. This can be done with words or graphics.
A thorough understanding of the word comes from knowing what it is AND what it is not. This is in agreement with what researchers Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001) tell us; that identifying similarities and differences appears to have the strongest effect on student achievement.
Tier Three Words
These are the domain-specific terms which are usually unfamiliar to students when beginning a new topic. They are often found in informational texts, but may be supported within the text, by definition within the passage, included in a glossary, etc.
Tier One Words
These are "everyday" words usually learned in early grades. However, these may still be problematic for struggling readers or English Language Learners of any age.
Tier Two Words
These are general academic words found across many texts; informational, technical, and literary.
Tier 1 - light
Tier 2 - energy
Tier 3 - nuclei
Teachers need to present and define Tier 3 words, but also attend to Tier 2 words which may be challenging for students. Depending on the needs of students, teachers should be prepared to clarify tricky words at any tier as they are encountered.
1. Quote the actual sentence or phrase and page number in which the word appears.
2. Write the word and the predicted definition for that word.
3. Check the word’s meaning in a glossary or dictionary and write the actual definition.
4. Write an antonym or opposite of the word. (what it is not)
5. Draw an image, symbol or word association to help you remember the word.
6. Write one good sentence to show how the word can be used.
Example Concept Chain
Santa, C. M., Havens, L. T., Franciosi, D., & Valdes, B. J. (2012).
Project CRISS: CReating Independence through Student-owned Strategies
(4th ed., text rev.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Billmeyer, R. (2006).
Strategies to Engage the Mind of the Learner: Building Strategic Learners
(2nd ed., text rev.). Omaha, NE: Printco Graphics Printing
Read Write Think
Marzano's 6-step Vocabulary teaching process
wikispaces file with resources to support