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PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS
Transcript of PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS
Analogy: You may send a message to me by E-mail.The subject may be one of great interest to me. I like to receive E-mail from you.In short, you have done a good job and I want to receive the message. But if I don’t turn on my computer, I won’t receive it. The message remains somewhere between your computer and mine—between sender and receiver.
There are 3 factors:
Selectivity of attention
. We direct attention to certain things to prevent an information overload.
Strength of attention
. Attention is not only selective; it possesses energy,or strength. Attention requires effort and desire.
Sustainment of attention
. Just as attention is determined by selectivity and strength, it is affected by time of sustainment.
Effective communication depends on understanding; that is, effective communication does not take place until the receiver understands the message. Understanding must result for communication to be effective.
WHAT IS LISTENING?
The process of
auditory messages; that is, messages
transmitted through the medium of sound.
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS
Verbal communication means communicating through the use of words, whether spoken or written. Two barriers obstruct our understanding of verbal communication.
We use nonverbal symbols to transmit many times more information than our verbal symbols carry. We communicate nonverbally through action factors, nonaction factors, and vocal factors.
The same words mean different things to different people. This barrier is a common one, and it may be experienced whenever any two people attempt to communicate.
Different words sometimes mean the same thing. Many things are called by more than one name. Soft drink, soda, and pop all mean the same thing when used in the same context.
The listening process may end with understanding, since effective communication and effective listening may be defined as the accurate sharing or understanding of meaning. But a response may be needed—or at least helpful. And there are different types of responses.
Direct verbal responses.
These may be spoken or written. Let’s continue with the E-mail analogy. After I have received, attended to, and understood the message you sent, I may respond verbally. If your message asked a question or sought my coordination, I might type a response on my computer and reply to you. Perhaps you requested that I call you or come to see you, in which case I do so. Or you might have asked me to write a position paper or think about an issue and give you some advice, in which case I might send a quick E-mail response indicating that I will get back to you later.
Responses that seek clarification.
I may use E-mail to ask for additional information, or I may talk to you either on the telephone or face-to-face. I may be very direct in my request, or I may just say, “tell me more about it.”
Misinterpretation of the action. Eye contact, gestures, and facial
expression are action factors that affect the meaning we attach to a message.
For that matter, any movement or action carries meaning.
Misinterpretation of nonaction symbols. The clothes I wear, the automobile I drive, and the objects in my office—all these things communicate something about me. In addition, my respect of your needs for time and space affects how you interpret my messages. For example, if I am to see you at noon but arrive 15 minutes late, my tardiness may affect how you interpret what I say to you. Or if I “crowd” you—get too “close” to you emotionally—when speaking, you may “tune me out”; that is, you may “hear” but not “listen to” my message.
Misinterpretation of the voice. The quality, intelligibility, and variety of the voice affect the listener’s understanding. Quality refers to the overall impression the voice makes on others. Listeners often infer from the voice whether the speaker is happy or sad, fearful or confident, excited or bored. Intelligibility (or understandability) depends on such things as articulation, pronunciation, and grammatical correctness. But variety is the spice of speaking. Variations in rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis are some of the factors that influence our understanding of the speaker’s message.
Responses that paraphrase.
I may say something like, “in other words,
what you are saying is. . . .” A paraphrase gives the sender a chance to
agree, or to provide information to clarify the message.
Many times, a nonverbal response is all that is needed; indeed, it may even be the preferred type of response. The knowing nod of the head, an understanding smile, or a “thumbs up” may
communicate that the message is understood.
What is the relationship between memory and listening? Understanding the differences between short-term memory and long-term memory will help explain the relationship.
information is used immediately—within a few
seconds, for example, as with a phone number that we look up. Short-term
memory has a rapid forgetting rate and is very susceptible to interruption. And
the amount of information that can be retained is quite limited, though it varies
somewhat with variations in the material to be retained.
allows us to recall information and events hours, days, weeks—even years—later. You remember, for example, things that happened
to you when you were growing up, songs you learned, people you knew. You may have been unaware of those memories for long periods of time, and then the right stimulus caused you to recall them. Perhaps the aroma of a freshly
baked pie called to mind your grandmother, who used to make great apple pies years ago.