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20th Century Music Part 1

Charles Hoffer Music Listening today Ch 29-31 presented by Jennifer Brown, Wayland Baptist University

Jennifer Brown

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of 20th Century Music Part 1

Twentieth Century Music Historical Setting more development and change than any previous century largest and bloodiest wars
WWI (1914-18)
WW2 (1939-45)
Korea, Vietnam, other armed conflicts kings replaced by dictators
political division nature of work
less physical labor (machinery to do manual labor)
more service jobs
more women in workforce technology allowed for instant communication
higher standard of living
longer and healthier lives Music
previously limited
to the privileged became available to everyone Intellectual Ideas Decreased Optimism Freud
cynicism Existentialism belief that things just are...
there is no deep meaning a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. (dictionary.com) Communism International awareness
Improved education
Increased status of women
Increased respect for all persons Positive Aspects Impressionism & Post-Romanticism Impressionism an artistic viewpoint that emphasizes overall impressions rather than detailed
or intellectual observations
(glossary MLT) appealed to senses rather than intellect sometimes referred to as French nationalism Differs from 19th century music in these ways: use of whole tone scales (http://cnx.org/content/m10866/latest/6b.mid)
smaller orchestras, often with no trombones & percussion
more chamber music and solo piano works flexible, subtle rhythm with less feeling of beat
notes added to chords to create color
parallel chord movement
much less development of themes softer sounds, delicate nuances of timbre and dynamics
little use of traditional forms
no deep messages; just for enjoyment Post-Romanticism works that continued in the Romantic style once it was no longer the prevailing style expanded, larger, longer, but still influenced by impressionism Claude Debussy http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/claude-debussy.aspx If you have a slow internet connection, or would just prefer to listen to the CD,
you can find a recording on CD 2 tracks 20-22 Maurice Ravel http://suite101.com/article/maurice-ravel-biography-a47007 http://www.favorite-classical-composers.com/daphnis-et-chloe.html#axzz1LI4vFEt1 Ravel's Daphnis et Chloe ballet read the page and listen to the musical exerpts Sergei Rachmaninoff http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/sergei-rachmaninoff.aspx Rachmaninoff - Rhapsody on a theme of Paganini Further Developments of 20th C Music Lots of new music Changes in
texture Development of new
forms & genres polyrhythm
tone clusters Melody expanded beyond major and minor scales including:
whole tone scales
pentatonic scales
longer phrases
less singable, sometimes indistinguishable melodies Rhythm complex, irregular metrical patterns
frequent changes of meter
use of two different rhythms or two meters at the same time
short repeated rhythmic patterns full range from extremely loud to extremely soft Dynamics Harmony polytonality (two or more chords sounded at same time)
chords built on 4ths and other intervals, instead of 3rds
added notes
more dissonance
sometimes no tonal center (home key) Timbre all types of sounds including:
non-conventional use of instruments
vocal sounds (shrieks, tongue clicks, babbling, etc)
use of silence
prepared piano
(odd items such as thumb tacks, coins, paper placed inside a piano)
electronic means used to produce any sounds imaginable Texture and Forms more counterpoint, some quite dissonant
any form possible
renewed in Baroque forms
sometime nor formal plan is discernable new electronic music
continuation of old genres, particularly chamber music Genres The Mainstream music that is not experimental or dedicated to any particular approach of writing music

influenced by folk music and music from earlier eras Bela Bartok http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/bela-bartok.aspx If you have a slow internet connection, or would just prefer to listen to the CD,
you can find a recording on CD 2 tracks 23-25 Béla Bartók - Concerto for Orchestra, mvmt 4 http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/heitor-villa-lobos.aspx Heitor Villa-Lobos If you have a slow internet connection, or would just prefer to listen to the CD,
you can find a recording on CD 6 tracks 1-3

The middle section is in portuguese. For English translation, see p. 273 Benjamin Britten http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/benjamin-britten.aspx If you have a slow internet connection, or would just prefer to listen to the CD,
you can find a recording on CD 2 tracks 26-27

Follow along with listening guide on p. 275 or download active listening guide Other mainstream composers
Dmitri Shostakovich

Ralph Vaughn Williams

Erik Satie
Darius Milhaud
Arthur Honegger
Francis Poulenc

Carlos Chavez

Alberto Ginastera Russia End of Part 1 - 20th Century Music England Mexico Argentina France If you have a slow internet connection, or would just prefer to listen to the CD,
you can find a recording on CD 5 tracks 37-41 Villa-Lobos Aria from Bachianas Brasileiras Britten Dies Irae from War Requiem excerpt
Full transcript