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Fall Final Review
Transcript of Fall Final Review
FINAL EXAM REVIEW
AKS 30e Explain the development of monotheism including the concepts developed by the ancient Hebrews and Zoroastrians
Hebrews (Israelites) were the first monotheists
Zoroastrians originated in Persia and were the first to speak of heaven and hell
AKS 30f Identify and examine early trading networks and writing systems existent in the Eastern Mediterranean including those of the Phoenicians
The Phoenician homeland was north of Israel. They pursued trade and organized numerous city-states throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
AKS 30g Explain the development and importance of writing systems including cuneiform and the Phoenician alphabet
Writing first development in the Mesopotamian city-state of Sumer. Sumerians used cuneiform (pictures) to keep track of trade accounts. Eventually, writing resulted in governments becoming more formal and organized (Think the Code of Hammurabi). Our writing, however, descends from the Phonenicians, who simplified writing into an alphabet based on sounds.
AKS 31b Analyze the development of Indian Civilization including the rise and fall of the Maurya Empire, "Golden Age" under Gupta, and Emperor Ashoka
AKS 31d Describe the development of Chinese civilization under the Zhou, Qin and Han Dynasties
The Zhou instituted the Mandate of Heaven after the assassinated an emperor. Historians believe it could have been to justify their rule.
After years of warfare the Qin took over and instituted harsh legalist rule. Their dynasty lasted only twenty years after the people revolted.
AKS 31e Explain the impact of Confucianism on Chinese culture including the Examination System, the Mandate of Heaven, the status of peasants, gender status, the status of merchants, & the patriarchal family & the diffusion of Chinese culture to Southeast Asia, Japan, & Korea
Confucianism focuses on 1) societal advancement through education, 2) respect for the family (filial piety), and 3) patriarchal society (father's in charge)
AKS 32a Explain how geographic features and cultural diffusion affected the development of the Greek and Roman civilizations
AKS 32b Compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire
AKS 32e Identify the ideas impact of important individuals to include Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle's pupil, Alexander the Great; and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar
Named Dictator for life after Civil War
Assassinated because it was feared he would destroy the Republic
Alexander the Great->
Taught to appreciate Greek Culture by Aristotle
Fought to destroy enemies
Spread Greek culture (Hellenism)
Created an empire
AKS 35b Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic Kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, Songhai) including the roles of Sundiata, and the pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca
All three kingdoms traded gold for salt. The trading network went across the Sahara Desert and was made possible by the introduction of camels.
Sundiata began Mali's Empire, but Mansa Musa led it at its peak, taking a pilgrimage to Mecca and bringing the best of the Islamic world to Mali back with him.
AKS 33d Analyze the role of Constantinople as a trading and religious center
On the Trade Routes
AKS 33e Explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire and Vikings on Russia with particular attention to its impact on Tsar Ivan III
The Vikings primarily influenced Northern Russia and the Byzantines primarily influenced Southern Russia.
AKS 33h Analyze the spread of the Mongol Empire; include the role of Genghis Khan in developing the empire, the impact of the Mongols on Russia, China, and the west, the development of trade, and European observations through the writings of Marco Polo
Mongol rule was brutal, but promoted the spread of ideas
Mongols sought to control the trade routes, dominated trade, but also spread disease
Marco Polo wrote favorably about the Mongols and Asian goods, encouraging Europeans to find easier trade routes to Asia
AKS 34a Explain the origins of Islam and the growth of the Islamic Empire
Founded by Muhammad
Islam = Surrender to the will of God
Caliph (Spiritual and Military Leader)
Spread by War and Trade
Jihad (Holy War)
Koran is the Book of Faith
Sharia (Law Based on the Koran)
Five Pillars of Islam
Allah is the only God
Prayer 5xs a day toward Mecca
Holy month of Ramadan
Give alms to the poor
Pilgrimage to Mecca
AKS 34c Explain the reasons for the split between the Sunni and Shia Muslims
Originated over a disagreement over who should lead
Shia (Shiites) believe that leaders must be directly related to Muhammad
Sunni believe that leaders must follow Muhammad's example and be the best qualified
AKS 34e Describe the impact of the Crusades on both the Islamic World and Europe
AKS 34f Analyze the impact of the expansion of the Mongol Empire to include the stabilization of trading networks from China to the Mediterranean world and the decline of the Islamic Empires
AKS 36a Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec and Incan Empires
The Olmecs were the first Mesomaerican Civilization and are known for building "big heads"
The Mayans were extremely advanced and known for their
human sacrifice & bloodletting
The Aztecs were known for
conquering their enemies
creating an empire
human sacrifice and cannibalism
The Incas were known for
control of inhabitants
lengthy road system
AKS 37a Explain and differentiate the manorial system and feudalism, to include the status of peasants and feudal monarchies and the importance of Charlemagne
Manorialism was the economic system ($) and Feudalism was the social/political system
In Feudal Society, there was NO social mobility:
Nobles (lords and knights) were at the top
Clergy (priests and nuns) were in the middle
Serfs (peasants) were at the bottom
Serfs WERE NOT slaves and could not be bought or sold; however, they were obligated to their lord in many different ways.
Manors were self-sufficient and there was very little trade. The lord was in control and protected his people. The king had very little authority.
Charlemagne was the most powerful king of the Dark Ages and crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope (even though he wasn't Roman)
AKS 37c Explain the role of the Church in Medieval Society
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, only the Roman Catholic Church was able to exert any authority in Europe.
Pope Gregory VII used excommunication to control the appointment of bishops during the Investiture Controversy.
Pope Urban II encouraged Europeans to travel to the Holy Land to drive the Muslims out of Jerusalem during the Crusades.
Pope Innocent III used interdictions and excommunications to become the most powerful pope in history.
AKS 37d Describe how increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities
Increased contact with advanced civilizations
Revived Trade & Education
Manorialism broke down
As manorialism broke down people returned to cities
Trade and manufacturing continued to grow
Rise of Merchants
As trade increased, merchants increased in power
Social mobility increased and many serfs left the manors
Strong Centralized Governments
Merchants supported SCGs because they protected trade and provided stable currencies
King's power increased at the expense of lord's and pope's
AKS 38d Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation to include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin
Broke with the Catholic Church after he posted his 95 Theses
Salvation through Faith and the Bible
Priesthood of All Believers
Church Tradition and Hierarchy are not needed
More extreme than Luther
God selected those who would go to heaven at the beginning of time (predestination)
Set up a strict theocracy where people were forced to live as the Bible commands
AKS 38f Describe the English Reformation and the role of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I
Initially, was a strong Catholic, but wanted a son
Asked the Pope for a divorce, but the Pope refused
Henry started his own church which gave him immense power and wealth
AKS 38 g Explain the importance of Gutenberg and the invention of the Printing Press
AKS 39a Explain the roles of explorers & conquistadors, including Zheng He, Vasco Da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, & Samuel de Champlain
Zheng He was China's greatest explorer
Led expeditions with dozens of GIANT treasure ships to as far away as East Africa
Generally sought peace, but would use force if needed
China traded porcelain and silk for ivory and gold
The emperors eventually decided contact with other cultures was harmful, shut down the expeditions and isolated China--thrusting it into a dark age that lasted until the 20th century
Portugal and Spain were the first nations to begin exploring
AKS39c Explain the role of the improved technology in European exploration including the astrolabe
If not for TRADE brought about by the Crusades, Europeans would not have been able to explore. Navigation and cartography were both aided by the astrolabe, compass and sextant.
These improved technologies, along with the caravel allowed Europeans to not only reach the New World safely, but circumnavigate the globe.
AKS 42a Explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler & Newton & how these ideas changed the European world view
All Scientific Revolution thinkers emphasized human reasoning. More on this after Christmas when we learn about the Enlightenment.
First to hypothesize the earth was not in the center of the universe
Had no proof and was wrong insofar orbits were circular
Kepler agreed with Copernicus that the sun was in the center of the universe and used math to prove it
He realized that the sun's gravity exerts influence and orbits are elliptical
Used his telescope to observe the heavens and noticed that they are not perfect
He also observed that the earth moves
For his efforts the Church placed him under house arrest for the rest of his life
Went on to develop the law of gravity after an apple dropped on his head
Used experiments to make discoveries