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HFA Exam Review

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Jessica Kropac

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of HFA Exam Review

HFA 4M1
Exam Review

Unit 1
Nutrition Basics

Unit 2
Nutrition and the Lifecycle

Unit 3
Canada and the Global Food Supply

Unit 4
Food Trends

6 Essential Nutrients
Macronutrients

Micronutients

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats
Water
Vitamins
Minerals
-Made up of sugars
-Acts as a quick source of energy
-4 kCal energy per gram
-Simple sugars (donut)
-quick source of energy
-Complex sugars(bagel)
-contains more nutrients
-Soluble vs insoluble fibre
-Made up of amino acids
-Building block of tissues
-4 kCal energy per gram
-Complete Proteins
-contains all 9 essential amino acids
-typically from animal sources
-Incomplete proteins
-does not include all 9 essential amino acids
-typically from plant sources
-Meant to be a long lasting source of energy
-Help carry fat soluble vitamins
-Help protect tissues and organs
-9 kCal energy per gram
-Broken down into various types, including saturated, unsaturated, and trans
-Require at least 8 glasses a day
-Comes from both food and fluid sources
-Help promote regular cell function
-Helps eliminate waste
-Important in metabolic functioning
Fat Soluble
Water Soluble
A
D
E
K
C
B Complexes
(B1, B3, B6, B12)
Vitamin Deficiencies

Scurvy
Beri Beri
Night Blindness
Pellagra
Rickets
Mineral Deficiencies

Tooth Decay
Anemia
Goiters
Digestion/Metabolism
Mouth
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
-Digestion starts here
-amylase present to break down carbohydrates
-mechanical digestion breaks down food
saliva starts chemical digestion
-Proteins broken down in stomach
-Food turned into chyme
-Mechanical digestion helps break down food
-Bile released to help break down fats
-Proteins further broken down
-Carbohydrates further broken down
-Nutrients begin to be absorbed into villi
-Water absorbed
-Salt Absorbed
-Vitamins absorbed (particularly B12)
Definitions and other concepts
Science of Baking
Science of Taste
Allergies vs Intolerance
Food Safety
Gluten: Protein complexes that help give baked goods texture

Yeast: Fungus, helps baked goods rise
Five chemical tastes the tongue recognizes
-Salty
-Bitter
-Sweet
-Sour
-Umami
Allergy: Immune response to a protein, often characterized by itching and swelling.

Intolerance: Adverse food reaction, does not involve an immune response or a protein.
Growing Concern: Obesity and Unhealthy Eating Patterns
Obesity terms and definitions
Causes of Obesity
Unhealthy Eating Patterns
-Obesity and Overweight in terms of BMI
-
-Fat, sugar, and salt

-Three causes of obesity

-Cost of healthy eating

-Factors that affect food choices

-Unhealthy Eating patterns:

-Eating Disorders:
-define anemia and bulimia
-EDNOS

-The psychology of eating
-Feedback loop
-Historical Perspective of eating
-Prader-Willie syndrome
-Genetic basis for obesity?
Eating in Pregnancy
-How many extra calories?
-Which 3 nutrients do you need and why?
Eating as an Athlete
Pre-game meal

Post-game meal
Eating in Adolescence
-Extra nutrients you need in adolescence

-Teenage boys vs. teenage girls
Eating for Wellness
-Key terms
-Antioxidants (and how they work)
-Phytochemicals (and where they are found)
-Define:
-Enriched Food, Fortified Food, Genetically Modified Food, and Functional Food
Vegetarian/Vegan
Define:
-Vegetarian
-Vegan
-Lacto-vegetarian
Global Food Crisis
Food Supply Chain
Staple Grains
Physical Factors Affecting Food Choice
Eating Local
Global Food Crisis Statistics
Causes of Global Food Crisis
Food Security
Water Crisis
1 in 6 people go to bed hungry each night
10 potential causes for crisis:

-Rising Food Costs
-Overpopulation (?)
-Use of Land
-Inequity of Resources
-Climate Change/Natural Disasters
-Low Reserves
-High Oil Prices
-Meat Consumption
-Bio-fuels
-Corporate Monopoly
-Food Security Definition
-5 components to food security:
-Adequacy
-Availability
-Acceptability
-Accessibility
-Agency
-3 Types of approaches to dealing with food security
-Short Term
-Capacity Building
-Structural Redesign
-How much of the world lacks clean drinking water?
-How much freshwater is available to us?
-5 steps of food supply chain
-3 examples of biotechnology in the food supply chain
-Bovine Growth Hormone

-Packaging that prevents spoiling

-Golden Rice
-Farmer

-Processor

-Distributor

-Retailer

-Consumer
-4 influences on choosing a staple grain
-Recognize all 9 staple grains
-Describe in detail 2
-Cost

-Nutrition

-Storage

-Availability
-5 Reasons to eat local
-Food miles
-Support Local Economy
-Health Concerns
-Food Quality
-Sustainability
-Geographic Location
-Growing Season
-Market Availability
-Storage Capacity
Current Food Trends


-Ancient Grains
-Greek Yogurt
-Food Trucks
-Back to Basics
-Street Food
-Farm Branding
-Sustainability
-Gluten-free
-Go local
Research and New Food Products
-Eggs
-Soy Based Food and Beverages
-Grains and Grain Products
-Yogurt
-Calcium
Service and Restaurant Trends
Types of Restaurant Service

Service Trends
-Fast Food

-Fast Casual

-Fine Dining

-Casual Dining
-Educated Consumers

-Optimal Pricing

-Limited-time menu offerings

-Dining 'experience'
Careers in the Food Industry
-Healthcare
-Agriculture
-Food Service
-Product Development
Food Packaging
Functions of Packaging
Types of Packaging Mediums
Sustainability
-Plastic

-Glass

-Paper

-Metal
-Communication

-Convenience

-Containment

-Protection
-Recyclable

-Reusable

-Biodegradable
Full transcript