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HFA Exam Review

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Jessica Kropac

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of HFA Exam Review

Exam Review

Unit 1
Nutrition Basics

Unit 2
Nutrition and the Lifecycle

Unit 3
Canada and the Global Food Supply

Unit 4
Food Trends

6 Essential Nutrients


-Made up of sugars
-Acts as a quick source of energy
-4 kCal energy per gram
-Simple sugars (donut)
-quick source of energy
-Complex sugars(bagel)
-contains more nutrients
-Soluble vs insoluble fibre
-Made up of amino acids
-Building block of tissues
-4 kCal energy per gram
-Complete Proteins
-contains all 9 essential amino acids
-typically from animal sources
-Incomplete proteins
-does not include all 9 essential amino acids
-typically from plant sources
-Meant to be a long lasting source of energy
-Help carry fat soluble vitamins
-Help protect tissues and organs
-9 kCal energy per gram
-Broken down into various types, including saturated, unsaturated, and trans
-Require at least 8 glasses a day
-Comes from both food and fluid sources
-Help promote regular cell function
-Helps eliminate waste
-Important in metabolic functioning
Fat Soluble
Water Soluble
B Complexes
(B1, B3, B6, B12)
Vitamin Deficiencies

Beri Beri
Night Blindness
Mineral Deficiencies

Tooth Decay
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
-Digestion starts here
-amylase present to break down carbohydrates
-mechanical digestion breaks down food
saliva starts chemical digestion
-Proteins broken down in stomach
-Food turned into chyme
-Mechanical digestion helps break down food
-Bile released to help break down fats
-Proteins further broken down
-Carbohydrates further broken down
-Nutrients begin to be absorbed into villi
-Water absorbed
-Salt Absorbed
-Vitamins absorbed (particularly B12)
Definitions and other concepts
Science of Baking
Science of Taste
Allergies vs Intolerance
Food Safety
Gluten: Protein complexes that help give baked goods texture

Yeast: Fungus, helps baked goods rise
Five chemical tastes the tongue recognizes
Allergy: Immune response to a protein, often characterized by itching and swelling.

Intolerance: Adverse food reaction, does not involve an immune response or a protein.
Growing Concern: Obesity and Unhealthy Eating Patterns
Obesity terms and definitions
Causes of Obesity
Unhealthy Eating Patterns
-Obesity and Overweight in terms of BMI
-Fat, sugar, and salt

-Three causes of obesity

-Cost of healthy eating

-Factors that affect food choices

-Unhealthy Eating patterns:

-Eating Disorders:
-define anemia and bulimia

-The psychology of eating
-Feedback loop
-Historical Perspective of eating
-Prader-Willie syndrome
-Genetic basis for obesity?
Eating in Pregnancy
-How many extra calories?
-Which 3 nutrients do you need and why?
Eating as an Athlete
Pre-game meal

Post-game meal
Eating in Adolescence
-Extra nutrients you need in adolescence

-Teenage boys vs. teenage girls
Eating for Wellness
-Key terms
-Antioxidants (and how they work)
-Phytochemicals (and where they are found)
-Enriched Food, Fortified Food, Genetically Modified Food, and Functional Food
Global Food Crisis
Food Supply Chain
Staple Grains
Physical Factors Affecting Food Choice
Eating Local
Global Food Crisis Statistics
Causes of Global Food Crisis
Food Security
Water Crisis
1 in 6 people go to bed hungry each night
10 potential causes for crisis:

-Rising Food Costs
-Overpopulation (?)
-Use of Land
-Inequity of Resources
-Climate Change/Natural Disasters
-Low Reserves
-High Oil Prices
-Meat Consumption
-Corporate Monopoly
-Food Security Definition
-5 components to food security:
-3 Types of approaches to dealing with food security
-Short Term
-Capacity Building
-Structural Redesign
-How much of the world lacks clean drinking water?
-How much freshwater is available to us?
-5 steps of food supply chain
-3 examples of biotechnology in the food supply chain
-Bovine Growth Hormone

-Packaging that prevents spoiling

-Golden Rice




-4 influences on choosing a staple grain
-Recognize all 9 staple grains
-Describe in detail 2



-5 Reasons to eat local
-Food miles
-Support Local Economy
-Health Concerns
-Food Quality
-Geographic Location
-Growing Season
-Market Availability
-Storage Capacity
Current Food Trends

-Ancient Grains
-Greek Yogurt
-Food Trucks
-Back to Basics
-Street Food
-Farm Branding
-Go local
Research and New Food Products
-Soy Based Food and Beverages
-Grains and Grain Products
Service and Restaurant Trends
Types of Restaurant Service

Service Trends
-Fast Food

-Fast Casual

-Fine Dining

-Casual Dining
-Educated Consumers

-Optimal Pricing

-Limited-time menu offerings

-Dining 'experience'
Careers in the Food Industry
-Food Service
-Product Development
Food Packaging
Functions of Packaging
Types of Packaging Mediums








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