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Shannon Charsley

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of Biomes

- Today forests occupy about one-third of Earth’s land area, account for over two-thirds of the leaf area of land plants, and contain about 70% of carbon present in living things.
-Forests are becoming major casualties of civilization as human populations have increased over the years causing deforestation, pollution, and industrial usage problems.
-Makes up the largest part of the biosphere (75%)
-The Aquatic is where life first started billions of years ago
- The biome is broken into two regions:

Arctic Tundra
-Conditions are cold desert-like
-Permafrost occurs in this biome
Tropical Forest
-Tropical forests are characterized by the greatest diversity of species
-They occur near the equator
-Another characteristic is their distinct seasonality; winter is absent and only two seasons are present which are rainy and dry
A Biome is a very large ecological areas on the Earth's surface with animals and plants adapting to their environment
Fresh Waters
- Have a low salt concentration of usually less than 1%
- Many of these fresh water regions include ponds, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands.
Species in freshwater regions are accustomed to living in low salt concentration and would not be able to survive in oceans for example.
-The marine regions covers about 3/4th of the earth
-This region includes oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries
-Marine algae provide lots of the worlds ocean supply
The evaporation of seawater causes rain for the land.
-The desert biome covers about 1/5th of the earth's surface
-A desert is categorized as a desert if it rains only 50mm annually
-Most deserts have specialized plants and animal species due to difficult living conditions with little water and extreme temperatures.
-Most deserts don't have large mammals because they are not able to store water and endure the heat.
Reptiles are dominant animals in the desert.
Hot and dry: Temp- max. 49°C | min. -18°C
Semiarid: Temp- max. 27°C | min. 10°C
Coastal: Temp- max. 35°C| min. -4°C
Cold: Temp- max. 26°C| min. -2°C

- Examples: Gobi in China. Saharra in Africa
-Human Activity: Nomadic tribes heard goats and camels, low population density as environment can't sustain a large number
-Structure: Few species, low biodiversity, spices adapt to drought conditions, Slow rate of decomposition
-Issues: Desertification
- Limiting Factors: Water (precipitation less than 250 mm p/year)(evaporation exceeds precipitation).
- The coldest of all the biomes is Tundra
- Tundra comes from Tinturia which is the Finnish word for treeless plain
-Animals are well adapted to the conditions
-Temp- max. 12°C| min. -34°C
-Even with its cold desert-like conditions there are many plants (about 1,700 species)
-Issues: Global warming destroying arctic regions, melting and threatening to destroy the biome, and unstable ecosystems
- Example: Siberia, and Alaska
-Structure- No trees, but lots of low growing plants. Animals adapted to cold conditions with thick fur coats
-Net Productivity: Low (slow decomposition)
- Human Activity: Nomadic groups, small populations of people.
-Limiting Factors: Water, Temperature, insolation, and nutrients
-Located on mountains
-Temp is usually below freezing
-Plants are similar to the arctic tundra
Alpine Tundra:
-Animals such as birds, bats, small mammals, and insects
-Flora is highly diverse, one square kilometer contains as many as 100 different species
-Trees are 25-35 m tall with shallow roots with large dark green leaves plants such as orchids, vines, ferns, mosses, and palms are often found in tropical forests.
Soil: Nutrients are poor and acidic, but decomposition is fast
-Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an annual rainfall of 2000mm
Temperature is on average 20-25 degrees Celsius
-The length of daylight is 12 hours but can vary
Temperate Forest
-Temperate forests occur in eastern North America, Northeastern Asia, and western and central Europe
-It’s got the 2nd highest NPP after tropical rainforests but much lower than these because of leaf fall in winter.
-Animals such as squirrels, rabbits, skunks, birds deer, mountain lion, bobcat, timber wolf, fox, and black bear live in this area.
-Flora: 3-4 tree species per square kilometer, trees such as oak, hickory, beech, maple, cottonwood
-Canopies are dense and allows light to penetrate resulting in well-developed and richly diversified vegetation and multiple types of animals.
-Soil is fertile and enriched with decaying litter
-Precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year with 75-150 cm of rainfall, which is one of the limiting factors
-Temperature varies from -30 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius
-Has a growing season of 140-200 days during 4-6 frost free months distinguish temperate forests
-Issues: Most of Europe’s natural primary woodland has been cleared for farming, for use of fuel and in building, and for urban development
-Much of temperate forests have been cleared for agriculture or urban developments
- Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses instead of large shrubs or trees.
-There are two main divisions of grasslands:
Temperate Grassland
- Temperate Grasslands are characterized as having grasses as the dominant vegetation.
 The rotted roots hold the soil together and provide a food source for living plants
 It’s nutrients are rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-branched grass roots
 The soil is deep and dark with fertile upper layers
 They are mainly found in many regions of South Africa (Veldt), Hungary, Argentina (Pampas), Uruguay, Soviet Union, and Central North America
-Temperatures can vary from summer to winter and the amount of rainfall is less in temperate grasslands than in savannas
-Trees and large shrubs are absent
-Wide diversity
-Precipitation in the temperate grasslands usually occurs in the late spring and early sumer
-Summer can be well over 38 degrees Celsius
-While winter can be as low as -40 degrees Celsius
-Gazelles, zebras, rhinos, wild horses, lions, wolves, jack rabbits, deer, coyotes, foxes, don’t all occur in the same temperate grassland
-Net Productivity: Not very high
-There are a few environmental concerns regarding the temperate grasslands
-Only a few natural grassland regions remain because most have been turned into farms or grazing land
-This is because they are flat, treeless, covered with grass, and have rich soil
Tropical Grassland:
-The rainfall is concentrated in six or eight months of the year, followed by a long period of drought when fires can occur.
-The climate is the most important factor in creating a savanna, they are always found in warm our hot climates where the annual rainfall is 20-50 inches per year
-Savanna is grassland with scattered individual trees
-They cover half the surface of Africa and large areas of Australia, South America, and India

Questions on Page 37:
1. Latitude is the distance from the equator.
2a. when you increase latitude the temperature becomes colder.
b. When you increase altitude the temperature becomes colder as well
3. ?
4. Trade winds are winds that blow towards the equator
Why Biomes are Where They are.
Factors such as altitude and latitude, climate, temperature, and rainfall determine where biomes are and why they have the characteristics they do.
Precipitation and temperature are the most important abiotic factors that influence biomes. They influence what grows there.
Example: In a desert there is little rain and high temperature, so the little water there is in the deserts the quicker the water evaporates.
By Shannon Charsley and Chen Jackson
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