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Hungallery

The result of my recent obsession with Hungarian art of painting.
by

Adam Vig

on 5 March 2011

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Transcript of Hungallery

HUNGALLERY A Clockwork of
Hungarian Art of Painting. The selection of artists and their works in this presentation is very subjective, they are my personal favourites mainly from the 19th and 20th centuries. Categorizing was even more difficult than choosing because most of them painted in more than one style and some of them can hardly be linked to any mainstream school. BIEDERMEIER
was a transitional style of art mainly in Central Europe between 1815 and 1848. There was a Biedermeier style in painting, literature, architecture and furnishings too. In painting its main attribute is the sympathetic representation of the man-in-the-street that is why portraits had an important role. BIEDERMEIER Milkós Barabás
1810-1898 Liszt Miklós Barabás made portraits of many famous
and rich Hungarian people of the 19th century. He had a legendary visual memory. Once he painted a picture of
someone whom he hadn't seen for thirtyseven years.
The painting was almost perfect. The Blue Grotto Pigeon-post József Molnár
1821-1899 József Molnár studied in Austria and Italy. He went to study visits to Germany and Switzerland. Sunny Brookside Bathers The Removal of Abraham Molnár blended Biedermeier
with Romanticism
and Naturalism. Gyula Benczúr
1844-1920 Baptizing Vajk Beczúr was rather a Historical painter
but his portraits still bear Biedermeier
features. Narcissus Vajk became the first
Christian king of Hungary,
Saint Staphen. A Benczúr drawing Master M S We don't know much about Master M S apart from his initials. Based on his style he probably studied in Italy. Only six of his pictures are known which were painted between 1500 and 1510 and once adorned the altar of Saint Katalin Church in Selmecbánya. Five of his paintings can be seen below. Visitatio Maria visiting Elizabeth Calvary Crosscarriage Resurrection Birth of Jesus 19th Century There are many good painters in the 19th century. I placed these three under the category of 19th century because they did not really belong to the romantics neither to Biedermeier nor to the Plein Air painters. Not to mention the impressionists. This categorization is bloody difficult and there is not much point in it. Anyway, these painters are deffinitely worth mentioning. Sándor Liezen-Mayer
1839-1898 Sleeping woman Rákóczy in Rodosto Elizabeth signs Mary Stuart's death sentence Sándor Liezen-Mayer was born into a wealthy family so that he could afford to study at the famous school of Carl Theodor Piloty in Munich. He painted many pictures of historical theme and made portraits of members of ruling European families. He is also very important because he was born
in the same town as me, in Győr. Károly Lotz 1833-1904 Károly Lotz was born from a German father and a Hungarian mother. He studied painting in Vienna. He was a many-sided artist who painted ancient mythological and biblical themes, portraits, animal forms, landscapes... Lotz was the most employed fresco painter in the second half of the 19th century which means that he decorated the walls of many prestigious buildings in Hungary with his pictures: the Opera House, the Saint Stephen Basilica, the Parliament... Revelling peasants Ilona Lotz Dome of the Basilica László Mednyánszky
1852-1919 Mednyánszky came from a noble family, his uncle was one of the first matyrs of the freedom fight in 1848-49. There are three main groops of his painting: landscapes, vagabond pictures and soldier paintings. Mednyánszky lived on subsistence level because he gave all his earnings to the poor. He went everywhere on foot, tended people with epidemic diseases and tried to get jobs for the homeless. He wrote his diaries in two languages, Hungarian and French. Romanticism Romanticism was a unified style of an age which spreads
over many branch of art. It started at the end
of the 18th century, flourished at the
beginning of the 19th century
and turned into Eclecticism
and Historism towards
the end of the
19th century. Viktor Madarász 1830-1917 Watering Old vagabond Soldiers Viktor Madarász was one of the best historical and romantic painters in Hungary. He studied in Austria and France. In Hungary he was rejected at that time because of his French style but he had international successes. He won the gold medal of the Salon de Paris in 1861. Self-portrait People of Dózsa Felicián Zách and Ilona Zrínyi Bertalan Székely
1835-1910 Székely was also a late romantic rather historical
painter. He travelled all over Europe to learn
and acquire experience. He also studied
at the famous Piloty in Munich. Székely was an exceptionally good pedagogist. He bacame
the director of one of the best art schools of Hungary
at that time. He had enormous theoretical
knowledge. His achievements in
literature are significant as well. Self-portrait Women of Eger Ágnes Adolf Fényes
1867-1945 Sunny street Siblings Girl with red scarf Adolf Fényes was
a talented student
of Bertalan Székely's
art school. He was not a tipical romantic painter either. Most of his works are rather realistic, and he tried himself out in the Plein Air too. Plein Air Hungarian Plein Air
painters just like others left
the atelier and went outside. Natural
light became extremely important for them.
Some of the impressionists made most of their works
outdoor. Thist era brings the invention of the paints in tubes and an also very practical thing, the easily portable Box Easel. László Paál
1846-1879 Paál was a caracteristically Hungarian follower of the Plein Air and the Barbizon School. He particularly liked painting trees and parts of forests using rather dark colours. He died very young and became popular in Hungary only decades after his death despite the
fact that his pictures had been
exhibited in the Salon
since the mid
1870s. October wind Poplars Road in the Fontainebleu forest Pál Szinyei Merse 1845-1920 Szinyei came from a noble family which had a 700 years old history. Literature, music and the fine arts were part of their everyday life and his parents supported his art ambition. During the freedom fight in 1848 the family offered all their silverware and jewellery for the sake of the success of the struggle. Szinyei won many prizes all around Europe for his wonderful paintings. He was a founding member of MIÉNK, the Circle of Hungarian Impressionists and Naturalists in 1907. Woman in violet dress Autumn In a park Picnic in May Oszkár Glatz
1872-1958 Glatz studied
painting in Hungary, Munich
and Paris. He was an excellent naturalist
painter and could genuinely delineate motions.
Once he lived in a forester's lodge as a hermit for five months on a mountain to paint a huge Plein Air picture about the snowy slopes. Wrestling boys Two girls with flowers Self-portrait IMPRESSIONISM Impressionism is probably the most
famous art movement which
started in the 1870s. Its
characteristics in paintings
are small yet visible brush
strokes, open composition,
emphasis on the accurate
depiction of light in
its changing qualities,
ordinary subject
matter, unusual visual angles and the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience. József Rippl-Rónai
1861-1927 Rippl-Rónai was rather post-impressionist. He studied at the Art Academy
in Munich. He moved to Paris in 1887 and became apprentice of Mihály Munkácsi who is generally regarded as the best Hungarian painter of all time. Certainly the most famous. Rippl-Rónai
was also a
founding
member of
MIÉNK. Spring works My father and uncle Piacsek Portrait of Szinyei Self-portrait Breakfast table Károly Ferenczy
1862-1917 Ferenczy became an artist partly because he fell in love with her cousin,
Olga Fialka who was also
a painter. They got
married. Károly Ferenczy is considered to be the best master of Impressionism in Hungary. He was founding member of MIÉNK and the remarkable Artist Colony of Nagybánya too. István Csók
1865-1961 October Stone throwers Man sitting on a trunk Csók studied from Bertalan Székely and Károly Lotz then he moved to Munich and Paris. He won prizes in Paris and Vienna. The country didn't catch his attention till he got acquainted with lake Balaton. He painted many beautiful pictures of the lake. Young girl in black stockings Sailboat on lake Balaton Penitent Magdolna Studio corner Spring Expressionism Expressionism was
a cultural movement
starting out from Germany
at the beginning of the 20th century.
Expressionists wanted to represent the world
from a completely subjective perspective, distorting it to
create emotional effect. In expressionism the emotional experience is far more important than physical reality. Vilmos Aba-Novák
1894-1941 Watering at shadoof Laura Vilmos Roman tavern Vilmos Aba-Novák is one of the most original and also most controversial talent of modern Hungarian painting. He
made
wall paintings,
used distemper.
One of his favourite
theme was the world of
fairs and circuses. belonged to the Roman School, mixed Expressionism with Novecento Italiano. Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka
1853-1919 It is a strange story how Csontváry became a painter. He studied to be a pharmacist. One day sitting in front of the pharmacy, he was still just a trainee, he drew the cart parking opposite in the street. Seeing the drawig his old kind master exclaimed "But you were born to be a painter!" Csontváry wrote in his autobiography that right then he heard a voice over his head saying "You are going to be greater than Raphael!" He started painting regularly only at the age of 41. He travelled mainly to the East, Lebanon and the Holy Land and made his most famous paintings there. Csontváry had an eccentric and extravagant personality. Many thought that he was crazy or had schizophrenia. Nobody took him seriously or understood him during his life in Hungary. He was laughed at because his diet consisted mainly of fruits and vegetables and he abstained from alcohol and artificial agents. He was a convinced pacifist. Pilgrimage to the cedars in Lebanon Old fisherman Imploring Jesus Roman bridge in Mostar Self-portrait Lajos Gulácsy
1882-1932 Gwinplayne Golgota Paolo and Francesca Gulácsy was an autodidact. Italian painters
like Giotto and Botticelli had great
effect on him. His later visions
were rather surrealist. Gulácsy
had a nervous
breakdown at the
beginning of the First World
War. He had lived in asylum since 1917 and got blind in 1924. Avant-garde Avant-garde is a nice, wide category. Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Impressionism and many more belong to Avant-garde. "Avant-garde represents the pushing of the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm." Paris Bridge on the Seine Still-life with sculpture Dezsöő Orbán 1884-1996 Dezső Orbán painted still-lifes, nudes, landscapes in post-impressionist and then later in abstract expressionist
style. He emigrated to Australia where he wrote a
guide book for autodidacts in
creative arts. József Egry
1883-1951 József Egry is also called the Painter of Balaton. Egry was born into a poor peasant family. He had a terrible accident during exercise in the First World War and he was taken to lake Balaton
to recover. Here he met his wife who worked as a volutary
nurse. The lake became his main theme which he
painted in his peculiar expressionist
constructive style. Clear up Landscape with trees Echo Dezsö Korniss 1908-1984 Shepherds Woman at Szentendre Cricket society Korniss was the member of the European School, he represented neo-avant-garde, surrealism and
non-frigurative
art in Hungary. He was a many-sided artist who was interested in Chinese calligraphy, decorated public buildings, was stage-designer
and directed animated
movies. The Eights The Eights was the most significant Hungarian Avant-garde art group at the beginning of the 20th century. The group was formed in 1909.
Its Members were young talented painters who studied
in Paris. The leader of them was Károly Kernstok.
The Eights mainly created in fauvist and
post-impressionist style but
expressionism, cubism
and secession can
be found among
their works too. The group was called The Eights simply because it had eight members: Róbert Berény, Dezső Czigány, Béla Czóbel,
Károly Kernstok, Ödön Márffy,
Dezső Orbán, Bertalan Pór,
Lajos Tihanyi. Bertalan Pór
1880-1964 Pór did not distance himself from everyday politics. He took an office in the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919 and supported even Rákosi's communist régime. Bertalan Pór was an outstanding painter, he had exceptional character portraying ability. His particularly individual style combined Post-impressionism, Secession, Plein Air and Realism. Gipsies Mihály Károlyi Commotion Lajos Tihanyi 1885-1938 In his late years he turned to non-figurative direction. Tihanyi was searching for materialistic
and analytical form breaker tensions in his art. Self-portrait Pen drawing Landscape Ödön Márffy 1878-1959 In Paris he got acquainted with the Hungarian poet genious Endre Ady. They became friends and Márffy married Ady's widow Csinszka who inspired him just as much as she ispired the poet, both of them had a Csinszka era. Márffy studied in Paris first at the Académie Julian then later at the École des Beaux-Arts. He had exhibitions in New York and Washington. His early works are post-impressionists but later he turned towards fauvism. Green room Lying nude Brick factory of Zebegény at the Danube FAUVISM Fauvism started at the Salon de Paris in 1905 where a new painting trend was introduced by a group which members called themselves Fauves (Wild Beasts). The artists gathering around Henry Matisse created the colorist tendency of modern French art. After only three exhibition and a short existence in 1908 the group dissolved but they had a long lasting impact on many painters. János Vaszary
1867-1939 Promenade in Pest Golgota Morphinist Apart from Fauvism Vaszary also has impressionist, post-impressionist, plein air,
art nouveau
and realist-naturalist
pictures. He studied at Bertalan Székely's school and later at the Julian Academy in Paris. His uncle, Kolos Vaszary
was the Archbishop of Esztergom which
is the highes office in the
Catholic Church
in Hungary. Dezső Czigány
1883-1937 Czigány was a modern painter who studied in Paris too. He was also a good friend of the poet Ady of whom he made many portraits just like Ödön Márffy. Critics disliked his self-portraits because he represented himself in different roles like a bishop or a worker, a monk or painted himself with green hair. Endre Ady Still-life Child funeral Béla Czóbel 1883-1976 Czóbel was
internationally
known as one of the
wildest fauvist. The art critic,
Louis Vauxcelles who named Matisse's
group to be Fauvists called Czóbel "fauve inculte". He lived and exhibited in many countries like the USA, France, Germany, Holland and of course Hungary. He had two painter wifes and his daughter Lisa became a world famous ballet-dancer. Little girl before a bed Street in Paris Flower still-life Cubism Cubism was an Avant-garde art movement at the beginning of the 20th century. It commenced with Picasso and Braque's pictures in 1907 and got exhausted in 1914 but its influence lasted much longer. Cubism broke the prevailing traditional empirical view and enhanced the structure and the defining geometrical necesities of the objects and space relations to its utmost limits. János Kmetty
1889-1975 Kmetty often visited the two most famous Hungarian artist colonies in Nagybánya and Szentendre. Kmetty is a rather cubist artist, isn't he? Self-portrait Scene of the City Park Woman and man Róbert Berény
1887-1953 Berény designed
inspiring posters for the army
of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919 to support the fight for the occupied territories. He was member of The Eights. Woman with glass Into arms! Houses of Monaco Károly Kernstok
1873-1940 Kernstok studied at Gyula Benczúr's master school then he moved to Paris like many of his conteporaries. These pictures are not really cubist, are they? He did paint cubist pictures though. Boat on the river Communion Evening Mihály Munkácsy
1844-1900 The Christ Trilogy Like in many of his paintings the figures are life-size here. Christ before Pilate Ecce Homo Golgota Yawning apprentice Condemned cell Twigs carrying woman Dusty road I left the best to the end as a reward for those who has had the patience and interest to get through my prezi. Munkácsy is undisputedly
the best and most famous Hungarian painter. He was
born as Mihály Lieb in Munkács but he changed
his German sounding name. He studied to
be a carpenter and he struggled a lot
to become a famous artist. Munkácsy was also a very good sociologist who knew the people's life in the villages and towns as well. He was a romantic-realist painter who made enormous canvases. After his mother died in 1850 he lived in privation, he had to move to his uncle. Munkácsy tried himself out in the theatre as an actor when he was young. At the Salon
de Paris in 1970 his
painting the Condemned
cell became very popular and got the gold medal. Munkácsy became famous at once and he moved to the French capital where he made many of his magnificent works. In 1873 he moved to Barbizon. He didn't belong to the Barbizon school but he enjoyed painting there. One of Munkácsy's great pictures can be seen in the Hungarian Parliament. When he was young he got syphilis. He recovered but later relapsed and this disease caused his death too.
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